Libmonster ID: VN-1220
Author(s) of the publication: G. F. MURASHEVA


This year marks the 14th anniversary of the entry of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (SRV) into the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (SE)-ASEAN. The date is not round, but it is possible to sum up some results of Vietnam's participation in the activities of this international organization.

Although ASEAN has been in existence for more than four decades, its organizational formalization has only recently been completed. It was only at the 13th ASEAN Summit in Singapore in November 2007 that integration-primarily economic integration - was identified as the main task of the organization's member countries. At the same meeting, the leaders of the ASEAN member States signed the text of the organization's Charter, which, after its final approval at the next summit in Thailand, was to become the basis for the practical implementation of the principles of interstate economic integration. The Summit in Thailand was scheduled for December 2008, but was postponed indefinitely due to the political crisis in the country.

Singapore also adopted a project to create an ASEAN Economic Community by 2015. It is clear that the success of such an ambitious regional project depends on the potential and real contribution of each of the member countries of the Association, which should be able to operate with regional categories no less, if not more, than national ones. This, in fact, is the whole point of the institution that we call regionalism.


Vietnam has always played a prominent role in regional integration. Historically, all the processes that took place in Southeast Asia affected Vietnam as part of the region. However, since its establishment in 1967, ASEAN has also been strongly influenced by the Vietnamese factor. In Indochina, Vietnam has traditionally been the leading center-forming force. Vietnam's very accession to the Association in 1995, followed by the accession of Laos, Myanmar and Cambodia, was a major contribution to the process of regional integration and the formation of the Southeast Asian region as a political and economic entity.

True, Vietnam and ASEAN were associated with the entry of this organization.

page 32

ASEAN member countries (marked with flags): Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam.

countries in the organization have different hopes. The Association hoped, among other things, to "engage" Vietnam and integrate it into the market economy of the region to get another country with a liberal economy and politics. Vietnam, on the other hand, wanted to use its participation in the Association as a community of high-tech countries for its own industrialization and modernization, strengthening its geopolitical and geo-economic positions. In fact, the interest in each other was mutual: ASEAN was interested in a successful Vietnam, and Vietnam was interested in a successful ASEAN.

Now we can see that Vietnam's hopes as a country with a "catch-up" economy have mostly come true. In its development, it makes extensive use of the experience of more developed countries in the region, in particular, Singapore and Malaysia. The Vietnamese leadership has set the following task: "To strive to ensure that by 2010 the country's scientific and technological potential reaches the level of advanced countries in the region in some important areas" 1.

The concept of economic development of Vietnam in the course of reforms is based on the principle of doi moi (renewal), which in reality means the use of market methods and a multi-structured economy, despite the fact that the socialist orientation of the Vietnamese economy is officially declared ("market economy of socialist orientation"). By the way, ASEAN recognized the market nature of the Vietnamese economy, while, say, the United States did not, and only expressed their readiness to "consider this issue."

It is interesting that Vietnam, yesterday's "socialist antagonist" of all the "bourgeois" countries in the region, was admitted to the Association without any preconditions as an equal among equals, and not as a junior partner of economically more developed countries. And already in 1998, at the Hanoi ASEAN Summit, he spoke to the Association's leaders in their own language, without emphasizing such a feature of the Vietnamese market economy as its "socialist orientation", and also called on the ASEAN countries to solidarity. At the Hanoi summit, Vietnam showed full awareness of the hierarchy of political and economic problems facing ASEAN, especially in the context of the financial crisis, for which the group was not ready, which, from the Vietnamese point of view, was its serious miscalculation. The crisis in the region, Vietnam stressed, has revealed the need for sustainable development of all ASEAN member countries, which, in turn, requires a fair solution to social issues, political stability, and the maximum combination of international cooperation with the development of the internal potential of States.2

At the meeting on its own land, Vietnam made important initiatives to promote interstate integration in Southeast Asia. The main ideas voiced by the then Prime Minister of Vietnam Pham Van Khai were reflected in the documents of the meeting-the Hanoi Action Plan and the Hanoi Declaration. Then, in 1998, and in subsequent years, Vietnam insisted on reducing the gap in the level of socio-economic development between the "old" and "new" members of the Association, as a necessary condition for effective integration in the region.

The success of the Hanoi summit was obvious and received a wide response in the region as an event that gives an additional impetus to the development of cooperation between the Association countries in the direction of universal balanced development. "If at certain stages of the crisis the stability of ASEAN as a community of countries united by ideas and interests was called into question, the results of the Hanoi summit consolidated not only the ASEAN members, but also the whole of Southeast Asia," says N. P. Maletin3, a Russian expert on Asian regional policy.

It is noteworthy, however, that in the Hanoi Declaration

page 33

1998. In the Vietnamese version of the text, the concept of "integration" is used only in relation to the global economy. With regard to intra-Asean integration, the Vietnamese text (paragraph 9) uses "near-integration" terms, so to speak, and uses a less binding Vietnamese word meaning "to connect, to unite": "...we will continue to look for a way to constantly increase ties among ourselves"4.


Indeed, in the 1990s, when Vietnam was already an active participant in regional and international economic integration, the very concept of "integration" in Vietnam was approached with caution. The question of the impact of the integration process on the sovereignty of the State and the independence of the national economy has always been raised. And even at the very beginning of the twenty-first century, when Vietnam clearly and unambiguously embarked on the path of "integration based on an independent economy," its leaders continued to ask the question: "how to connect an independent economy with integration?5 In 2006, the Tenth Congress of the Communist Party of Vietnam (CPV) was forced to admit that "... science has not yet answered the question of how to combine independence and sovereignty with active initiative participation in international economic integration. " 6

Nevertheless, the 9th Congress of the Communist Party of Vietnam (April 2001) formulated Vietnam's conceptual approach to global and regional integration as a direction of Vietnam's foreign policy "based on the independence of the sovereign economy": "To initiate international and regional economic integration with the maximum development of domestic potential... and based on the principle of preserving independence, socialist orientation, state sovereignty and original national culture... Increase the role and influence of our country on the regional and global economy"7. Thus, since 2001, we can speak of regional integration as an important direction of Vietnam's foreign and foreign economic policy.

The decision of the 9th Congress of the Communist Party of Vietnam, as well as the subsequent resolution of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Vietnam (November 2001)8 on international economic integration (MPI), which formulated the goals, concept and specific tasks of Vietnam in the MPI, became a concretization and development of the ASEAN initiative on integration, which the leaders of this organization Summit in Singapore on November 22, 2000 Vietnam, which participated in the preparation of the meeting documents, was impressed that its proposals and ideas were almost completely taken into account in these documents.

Over the following years, Vietnamese specialists, together with representatives of other countries of the organization, worked on the planning and implementation of the ASEAN Initiative precisely in order to reduce the gap in the level of development of old and new members of the Association. In July 2008, Vietnam's Minister of Foreign Affairs Pham Za Khiem announced that the first phase (2001-2008) of the ASEAN Integration Initiative's work plan was nearing completion.9 Viet Nam, as Chair of the Working Group on the Initiative, links its proposals and ideas with other countries working on the draft second phase of the action plan under the Initiative. It is assumed that the core of this phase will be the issue of labor reserves and infrastructure of each of the member countries of the Association, as well as their economic integration into the community. The project is expected to be presented at the 14th ASEAN 10 Summit. "Vietnam will continue to play a key role in making serious decisions by the Association, as well as in putting forward initiatives for cooperation between ASEAN countries in various fields," said Nguyen Hong Quong, Head of the ASEAN Department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Vietnam, in July 200711.


An analysis of the overall economic situation in Vietnam, conducted by Russian researcher V. M. Mazyrin, showed that Vietnam is still at the beginning of the process of "catching up" development and it will take more than a decade for it to catch up to the level of the leading ASEAN countries.12

Many people think so, including a recognized economic authority in Vietnam and ASEAN, former Prime Minister of Singapore Lee Kuan Yew, who visited Vietnam (not for the first time) in early 2007. He said that Vietnam " ... will easily have 8 to 10% of economic growth annually in the next 10 years However, it will take more than a decade for the country to catch up with its more developed neighbors in ASEAN."13 Vietnamese leaders themselves admit that Vietnam is "still an underdeveloped country, its economy lags behind many countries in the region and the world..." But the authorities have set a goal: to quickly bring the country out of "underdevelopment", at least, until 2010 And by 2020, Vietnam should become basically a modern industrial state 14.

To achieve these goals, Vietnam relies primarily on its own resources, on the high technologies and capital of large developed countries, as well as on the integration potential of its ASEAN partners, which have advanced in their development.

According to estimates of Vietnamese experts, the country's economy has already benefited from joining ASEAN. Over 10 years (1995-2005), the volume of investments from the Association countries to Vietnam increased from $ 2 billion to $ 11.3 billion. The ASEAN countries are currently implementing about a thousand investment projects in Vietnam with a total value of more than $ 13 billion. This represents approximately 20% of all foreign-invested projects in Vietnam. For its part, Vietnam invests more than 120 projects in the Association's countries, allocating over $ 700 million for this purpose.16

The 34th Meeting of Foreign Ministers was held in Hanoi in July 2001 under the sign of the need to assist the new members of the organization - Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar and Vietnam-in the process of regional integration.

page 34

ASEAN affairs. The statement following the meeting emphasizes:: "If effective measures are not taken to address the negative impact of globalization, the development gap between countries and regions will only widen" 17. And then: "We fully support all measures aimed at helping Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar and Vietnam integrate into the single ASEAN regional economy, including its Free Trade Area, Investment Area and trade and services liberalization area." 18

The idea of regional integration was developed at the Seventh ASEAN Summit in Brunei in November 2001, where Vietnam's Prime Minister Phan Van Khai highlighted strengthening cooperation in the implementation of the 1998 Hanoi Action Plan as the main policy direction. With regard to trade and economic cooperation, he insisted on a significant increase in the volume of intra-regional trade of ASEAN.19

In order to narrow the gap in the development of the organization's states, as well as between the Association's states and other countries of the world, Phan Van Khai suggested focusing on three priority areas:: development of industrial infrastructure, training and retraining of labor resources, introduction of information technologies. He also recalled the commitments of the more developed countries that are members of the organization to provide technological assistance to the rest of ASEAN members. Supporting the ASEAN position on combating terrorism, Phan Van Khai stated that "... it is impossible to implement the plans of individual states under the pretext of fighting terrorism, and, moreover, to interfere in the internal affairs of other countries ... " 20.

The theme of regional and international economic integration has always been the main theme at all subsequent ASEAN summits and important meetings: at the 8th Summit in Phnom Penh (November 2002), at the 9th summit in Bali (October 2003), and at the 10th summit in Vientiane (November 2004).), etc. At the same time, Hanoi has consistently defended its national interests, which, however, coincide with the basic goals of regional integration: reducing the gap in the level of development of the ASEAN countries, as well as other Asian states, and ensuring sustainable development of the region with an emphasis on social problems and stability.21


Realizing its accumulated integration potential, Vietnam actively participates in projects aimed at creating the ASEAN Economic Community. The X Congress of the Communist Party of Vietnam (April 2006) named Vietnam's participation in the process of building such a community among the top priorities of foreign economic policy.22 The leadership of Vietnam supported the formation of the ASEAN Economic Community by 2020, as well as the Vientiane Action Plan (VAP), whose priority goal is to build this Community. Vietnam subsequently supported the ASEAN decision taken at the 11th ASEAN Summit in Kuala Lumpur in December 2005 to postpone the establishment of the community to 2015. Vietnam participated in the 12th ASEAN Summit (January 2007) in Cebu Island, Philippines, where it confirmed its decision to accelerate the establishment of the ASEAN Economic Community and complete the implementation of the ASEAN Economic Community. implementation of this project by 2015 23

The idea of creating this community is seen in ASEAN as "... the organization's strategic response to the rise of China and the need to raise the level of competitiveness of ASEAN member countries in the face of globalization"24. Is it worth saying that this idea fully meets the national interests of Vietnam?

Perhaps there are skeptics in the Vietnamese leadership who doubt the implementation of such a grandiose project as building an ASAN Economic Community by 2015. Admittedly, there are reasons for their doubts: not all important decisions of the organization were implemented in practice. But, at least officially, this position is not shared in the country.

The fact is that the idea itself, which involves equalizing the levels of development of the community countries, meets the interests of Vietnam, regardless of the timing of its implementation. Leaders of the country from time to time in their speeches remind that there is not much time left until 2015, and the process of creating an "economic ASEAN" is still slow. But they invariably suggest measures that they believe could speed up the process, and they are generally optimistic about the prospects.

Thus, the message of Vietnamese President Nguyen Minh Thiet to the 28th session of the ASEAN Inter-Parliamentary Assembly in Kuala Lumpur (August 2007) reads:: "I am confident that we are now on the right path to a strong ASEAN community built on the principles of mutual aid and mutual support." Chairman of the National Assembly of Vietnam Nguyen Phu Trong, who represented Vietnam at the Kuala Lumpur session, noted the importance of 2007 as an important milestone in building the ASEAN Economic Community. This year, he argued, "... could be the most important year in the entire 40-year history of ASEAN, if we resolutely undertake to build the political and economic community of Southeast Asian countries. " 25 ASEAN Secretary-General Ong Keng Yong said at the same time: "To build the ASEAN community by 2015, the group must work towards integrating the economy into the single market, narrow the development gap of the Association's member countries, and address the social dimensions of economic development, highlighting the creation of a mutually supportive society. All of this will require a stronger and more effective organization than ASEAN is today. " 26


Prime Minister of Vietnam Nguyen Tan Dung, in a speech at the Business and Investment Summit in Singapore in November 2007 (it was held within the framework of the 13th ASEAN Summit), drew attention to " ... the lack of-

page 35

This is a major breakthrough in trade and economic relations within ASEAN. Only 25% of the total trade volume of the Association is still accounted for by trade between its countries. And every single economy in ASEAN is not a powerful economy in any way." The lack of large-scale trade and economic ties between the ASEAN member countries certainly does not contribute to the process of intra - Asean integration. In these circumstances, the Prime Minister of Vietnam believes that the priority focus of ASEAN on relations with developed countries that are not members of the organization is justified, in order to launch the process of broader integration in the region through trade and economic cooperation and the creation of free trade zones.27

Hanoi believes that in the period 2010-2020, it is necessary to create free trade zones of ASEAN-China, ASEAN-South Korea, ASEAN-Japan, ASEAN-India, ASEAN-EU, ASEAN-Australia and New Zealand.28 Vietnam is currently seeking to be a coordinating country for Association economic relations with the European Union 29. Vietnam makes a significant contribution to the ASEAN-EU partnership, especially in the negotiations on the establishment of this free trade area.

At the summit meeting marking the 30th anniversary of the establishment of EU-ASEAN dialogue relations (22 November 2007), Vietnam's Foreign Minister Pham Za Khiem stated that Vietnam and the EU "... are starting negotiations on a Vietnam-EU Cooperation and Partnership Agreement that will form the basis for more effective relations " .30 In addition, for several years now, Vietnam has been helping to coordinate relations between ASEAN and Russia, the United States, Japan, Australia and Canada, helping, according to Pham Za Khiem, "... build relations both qualitatively and quantitatively. " 31

Vietnam made a significant contribution to the concept of building the ASEAN Economic Community when it proposed to supplement its construction with a socio-cultural component. Following the 41st ASEAN Foreign Ministers ' Meeting in Singapore (July 2008), Pham Za Khiem emphasized that it was the EAP that proposed the development and inclusion of a socio-cultural component in the ASEAN Economic Community Charter.32 Vietnamese leaders even claim that without solving sociocultural problems, building a community in general "will be difficult."

These ideas have found support, for example, in Malaysia, where prominent politicians believe that " ... in building the ASEAN community, the social development problems of the people should not remain on the margins, but should be the main concern of ASEAN." Malaysia, where the proportion of poor people fell from 50% in the 1970s to 5% today, is ready to share its experience of improving the social situation with other member countries of the Association.33

Vietnam has been developing the theme of the need for a fair solution of social issues in ASEAN since the very beginning of its membership in the Association. At the 6th Hanoi Summit in 1998, Vietnamese leaders emphasized that the financial crisis in Asia at that time highlighted the need for sustainable development in the region, which requires increased attention to social problems - because they depend on the political stability of states.34

In Vietnam itself, the poverty and poverty reduction program has been implemented for many years in various forms and methods. In the Social and Economic Development Program of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam for 2001-2010, solving the problems of poverty and hunger is set as a priority goal 35.


Vietnamese experts actively participated in the preparation of the draft ASEAN Charter, the final stage of which was held in 2007. Given that Hanoi insists on adhering to the principle of "non-interference" as fundamental to the set of principles that make up the ASEAN way, it can be assumed that the Socialist Republic of Vietnam will try to keep "non-interference" and "non-interference" intact in the Charter, among others.consensus " decision-making, and the competence of the Human Rights Commission, which was proposed by the "old" ASEAN members, was as vague as possible.

The Minister of Foreign Affairs of Vietnam Pham Za Khiem noted "...Vietnam has been actively and fully engaged in cooperation with ASEAN over the past 13 years," especially highlighting its role in drafting the ASEAN Charter.36 For Vietnam, the Charter is of particular importance, as it is the first fundamental legal document of the Association.-

page 36

a project that Hanoi participated in the preparation of. Vietnam has steadfastly defended such basic goals of the Association as peace, stability, regional integration, bridging the development gap of the ASEAN countries, as well as consensus and non-interference in internal affairs, non-use of the territory of one member of the Association against another, etc.

At the same time, Vietnam fears that the Charter may become ineffective when it is necessary to apply it in specific (especially extreme) situations in the region and beyond. 37 " For the Charter to work, each country must take a more responsible and qualified approach to participating in negotiations and implementing each decision, and take more care of the overall goals of ASEAN We need to harmonize our development interests and the interests of the entire region, " Pham Za Khiem said. A stable, close-knit and strong Association, he argues , is an important factor in ensuring Vietnam's security and development interests.38

Vietnam's efforts to implement the Charter are seen by the Vietnamese leadership as a serious opportunity for Vietnam to make an important contribution to advancing ASEAN integration, while at the same time enhancing the country's role and authority in the world. Hanoi's satisfaction with the ASEAN Charter as a document that meets its national interests was reflected in the fact that it was one of the first countries to ratify this document in March 2008.

Vietnam is already preparing for the ASEAN Presidency in 2010 and the organization's next summit. Cadres are being trained, including young ones who can represent Vietnam in the Association 39.

Vietnam's bilateral relations with the ASEAN countries are an important part of the country's participation in the integration process. In these relations, one can trace the operation of such a principle of Vietnam's foreign policy as multi-vector and diversification in international relations. All countries of the Association are officially recognized as foreign policy priorities of the SRV40. However, Prime Minister Nguyen Tan Dung's visit to the 6 ASEAN countries in August 2007 showed how different the content of relations between these countries and Vietnam is and how differently they affect the integration process in the region. Singapore, of course, holds a special position among Vietnam's priorities in Southeast Asia.


Vietnam-Singapore relations serve as an example of the effectiveness of the Hanoi strategic statement: "For the successful construction of the ASEAN Economic Community, each member state must first of all harmoniously combine national interests and the interests of the community." To this end, the governments of both countries are looking for levers for "complementarity of economic power" through the interaction of their economies, for which a framework agreement on linking the economies of Vietnam and Singapore was signed in December 2005. According to this document, the two sides agreed to maintain constant communication in six areas: investment, trade and services, transport, information technology, finance, education and training. 41

During Prime Minister Nguyen Tan Dung's trip to Singapore in August 2007, the two Governments agreed to expand the scope of the agreement to benefit Singapore's businesses and the Vietnamese economy. Trade cooperation is expanding by connecting two new sectors-ports and logistics, as well as urban infrastructure.42 Earlier, the two sides signed a Joint Declaration on Long-term and Comprehensive Cooperation in the Twenty-first Century, reflecting their shared interest in a "more integrated ASEAN" .43

Singapore sees Vietnam as a potential economic engine for ASEAN's growth, giving it a significant role in integrating the group's economies. This opinion was expressed by former Prime Minister and now Senior Minister of Singapore Gok Chok Tong, who paid an official visit to Vietnam in December 2007 in connection with the opening of the high-tech park, by the way, the third in a row built by Singaporean and Vietnamese specialists. 44 Singapore's President S. R. Nathaniel visited Vietnam in February 2008. All these visits demonstrate the strengthening of inter-State relations between Vietnam and Singapore.

Singapore is now Vietnam's second-largest foreign investor (after the Republic of Korea) and its fourth-largest trading partner (after China, Japan, and the United States). Trading volume-

page 37

the two-state border is growing rapidly 46. Singapore is engaged in more than 500 Vietnamese projects worth a total of $ 9.6 billion. 47 The parties shall establish a joint committee at the ministerial level to ensure high-level support for the projects in which they cooperate.48 The development and strengthening of Vietnam-Singapore relations is facilitated by their rather close assessment of the importance of the United States for the region.


Vietnam's policy of further developing and deepening relations with the United States coincides with Singapore's approach to assessing its role in the region: both countries consider the US presence extremely necessary. They welcomed the statement made by US Deputy Secretary of State John Kerry. Negroponte in Manila in August 2007 that Washington remains true to its commitments to ASEAN. "We want to deepen our partnership with you on an individual and collective basis," he told 49. In response, the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Singapore, J. R. R. Tolkien, said: Yeo, expressing the position of ASEAN, said that the US presence in Southeast Asia helped ensure stability and prosperity, although the emergence of China and India "changed the configuration of the region." "Time is a challenge, and the leadership role of the United States is crucial. If the US stays in the region, it could be a new golden age for Asia and for the world, " he said.50

Bilateral relations between the United States and Vietnam confirm the interest of both Washington and Hanoi in developing relations "on an individual basis" in the context of a new configuration of forces in Southeast Asia and, above all, the growing influence of China. "Vietnam-US relations are now at a higher level, which is dictated by strategic necessity and trade considerations, and both countries have set a course for long-term cooperation, "the Singapore Straits Times argued in June 2007.51

This was confirmed in a Joint Statement issued by President John Kerry. Bush and Vietnam's Prime Minister Nguyen Tan Dung did this during the Vietnamese leader's visit to the United States in June 2008. Both leaders supported the idea of establishing a new mechanism for dialogue on policy and defense issues, as well as making consultations (exchange of views) on strategy and security issues permanent and more in-depth. The US President reiterated his support for Vietnam's national sovereignty, security, and territorial integrity.52

The text of the joint statement allows us to draw a conclusion about progress in relations between Hanoi and Washington in the military field. Vietnam has previously avoided participating in any structures or initiatives that require a Vietnamese military presence abroad. During the APEC Forum summit in Hanoi in November 2006, Bush even urged Vietnamese leaders to join the fight against the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, but did not receive a clear response.53 A joint statement issued by the two leaders (June 2008) states that Vietnam "is ready for a peaceful transition."..completes preparations for participation in the UN peacekeeping forces", as well as that "...Vietnam will take part in exercises and other peacekeeping activities... " 54.

The extent to which the military vector of Vietnam-US relations, as well as the relations of other ASEAN countries with the United States, contributes to the integration of ASEAN in the political and security spheres remains open for discussion.55


Hanoi considers the strengthening and development of extensive and effective bilateral relations with the Association countries as a priority component of its regional integration policy. This is evidenced, in particular, by the visits of Nguyen Tan Dung, in addition to Singapore, to other ASEAN countries in August 2007.:

- We managed to strengthen cooperation with Indonesia in the field of culture, agriculture, fisheries, and in the fight against corruption. During the talks, the sides stressed the need for further development of comprehensive, long-term and stable cooperation between the two countries. The relevant ministries were instructed to draw up an action plan for the development of comprehensive cooperation in the early twenty-first century.;

- A program was signed with the Philippines for 2007-2010 to implement the earlier Joint Statement on the Framework of the United Nations Development Programme.

page 38

cooperation in the first years of the XXI century The program outlines in detail the key areas of cooperation in politics, national defense and security, economy, trade, forestry, fisheries, tourism, health, culture, education, science and technology.;

- We agreed with Myanmar to strengthen bilateral cooperation in the economy, trade, agriculture and forestry, fisheries and expand cooperation in other areas, such as oil and gas, healthcare and telecommunications. Also agree to increase trade to $ 100 million by 2009, up from $ 79 million in 2006. Myanmar has offered Vietnam investments in agriculture, forestry, hydropower, oil and gas. Vietnam's Oil and Gas Group and the Myanmar Ministry of Energy signed a strategic partnership agreement, which opens up opportunities for further bilateral cooperation in the field of oil and gas production and processing;

- The main areas of cooperation with Brunei were trade and investment. Brunei's leaders also offered to strengthen cooperation and exchange experience in the development of oil and gas fields, as well as host Vietnamese workers, which is very important for Vietnam with its surplus labor force.

In total, during Nguyen Tan Dung's visits to the ASEAN countries, 7 agreements were signed at the government level, as well as a number of important contracts. Assessing the results of this trip, the Prime Minister of Vietnam said that they helped to increase Vietnam's role and prestige in the region, as well as helped to create more favorable conditions for cooperation in key areas of each ASEAN member country and the Association as a whole.57 Speaking in August 2008 on the occasion of the 41st anniversary of the founding of ASEAN, Nguyen Tan Dung stated: "Vietnam is an integral part of ASEAN and a responsible member of the ASEAN family. The Southeast Asian region and ASEAN are of strategic importance for Vietnam, as they directly affect the country's security and development. A closely integrated ASEAN that is solidary and united, has an important international significance and authority in the world, and fully meets the fundamental long-term interests of Vietnam. " 58

With which, of course, it is impossible not to agree.

1 Documents of the X Congress of the CPV. Hanoi, 2006, p. 98 (in Vietnamese).

2 Nyanzan. 13.12.1998.

Maletin P. P. 3 ASEAN: Four Decades of Development, Moscow, 2008, p. 184.

4 Nyanzan. 17.13.1998.

5 Documents of the IX Congress of the CPV. Hanoi, 2001, p. 155 (in Vietnamese).

6 Documents of the X Congress of the CPV... p. 69.

7 Documents of the IX Congress ... pp. 43, 167. In the documents of the IX Congress, the Vietnamese concept of integration was already applied to both global and regional integration.

Phom For The Gospel. 8 Vietnam is confidently moving towards integration // Tap thi kong shan, 2007, No. 7 (in Vietnamese).

9 080728092604/new

10 Ibid.

11 070726080035/new

Mazyrin V. M. 12 Reforms of the transition period in Vietnam (1986-2006): directions, dynamics, results. Moscow, 2007, p. 221.

13 The Straits Times. 21.01.2007.

14 Documents of the X Congress, pp. 69, 24, 98, 23.



17 Nyan zan. 24.07.2001.

18 Ibid.

19 Nyan zan. 6.11.2001.

20 Ibid.

21 As early as 1998, in the Hanoi Declaration, ASEAN leaders pledged to work to reduce the development gap between ASEAN countries and regions by implementing a program of cooperation in sub-regions, including the development of the East - West Corridor (WEC), the construction of the Singapore-Kunming Railway (China), etc.. 17.12.1998.

22 Documents of the X Congress... p. 204.

23 The Straits Times. 08.08.2007.

24 Noel Morada ASEAN at 40: Prospects for Community Building in Southeast Asia // Asia Pacific Review, v. 15, 2008, N 1, p. 39 - 40. On the creation of the ASEAN Community as a" strategic priority " of the Association. See: Maletin N. P. Decree of soch., p. 204. 25040807104143... 070823110605/new...

26 Ibid.

27 Nyan zan. 19.11.2007.

28 Ibid.

29 070813095404/new

30 071123102558/new

31 080728092604/new

32 Ibid.

33 0708823110605/new

34 Nyan zan. 13.12.1998.

35 See: Mazyrin V. M. Edict. soch., p. 268.

36 080728092604/new

37 According to former ASEAN Secretary General Ong Keng Yong and two of his predecessors in 2007, only 30% of decisions in the entire history of ASEAN have been implemented. 19.11.2007.

38 See footnote 44.

39 080728092604/new

40 "Promote comprehensive and effective cooperation with all ASEAN countries, Asia-Pacific countries..." - Documents of the X Congress of the CPV, p. 114.

41 Framework Agreement on Singapore - Vietnam Connectivity -Vietnam. en/service/printversion. vnn?article id_741512; The Sunday Times. 02.07.2006; Singapore and Vietnam constantly exchange visits at the highest state level, and Singapore became the first country in ASEAN to complete bilateral accession negotiations with Vietnam in 2004. WTO // Nyan zan. 12.12.2004.

42 The Straits Times. 14.08; 15.08.2007.

43 The Sunday Times. 02.07.2006. The Declaration was signed in March 2004 during Phan Van Khai's visit to Singapore.

44 The Sunday Times. 16.12.2007.

45 The Straits Times. 28.02.2008.

46 The Straits Times. 14.08.2007.

47 The Straits Times. 15.08.2007.

48 The Strait Times. 14.08.2007. Some experts believe that Hanoi generally focuses on the modern development model of Singapore and Malaysia. Singapore, according to the Norwegian researcher Tonnesson, causes genuine admiration among Vietnamese politicians for the combination of political authoritarianism with the economy of a free market. See: Mazyrin V. M. Reforms of the transition period in Vietnam (1986-2006). Moscow, 2007, p. 17.

49 Currently, economic ties between the United States and ASEAN countries are developing, with a trade volume of $ 168 billion. and Southeast Asia is the fourth largest trading partner of the United States / / The Straits Times. 2.08.2007.

50 The Straits Times. 2.08.2007.

51 The Straits Times. 23.06.2007.

52 Nyan zan. 27.06.2008.

53 The Straits Times. 29.03.2007.

54 Nyan zan. 27.06.2008.

55 For the US attitude to the problem of regionalism in Southeast Asia, see: Sumsky Victor. The Art of the Possible in the ASAN's Future Global Asia. V. 3, 2008, N 1, p. 100.


57 070817153112/new

58 Nyan zan. 08.08.2008.


Permanent link to this publication:

Similar publications: LVietnam LWorld Y G


Jet WongContacts and other materials (articles, photo, files etc)

Author's official page at Libmonster:

Find other author's materials at: Libmonster (all the World)GoogleYandex

Permanent link for scientific papers (for citations):

G. F. MURASHEVA, VIETNAM TO ASEAN // Hanoi: Vietnam (BIBLIO.VN). Updated: 07.04.2024. URL: (date of access: 26.05.2024).

Found source (search robot):

Publication author(s) - G. F. MURASHEVA:

G. F. MURASHEVA → other publications, search: Libmonster VietnamLibmonster WorldGoogleYandex


Reviews of professional authors
Order by: 
Per page: 
  • There are no comments yet
Related topics
Jet Wong
Hanoi, Vietnam
136 views rating
07.04.2024 (48 days ago)
0 subscribers
0 votes
Related Articles
Catalog: Military science 
32 days ago · From Jet Wong
Catalog: Law 
32 days ago · From Jet Wong
Catalog: Art history 
32 days ago · From Jet Wong
The country remembers the artist BUI XUAN FAI
Catalog: Art history 
43 days ago · From Jet Wong
Catalog: Economics 
43 days ago · From Jet Wong
Catalog: Sociology 
43 days ago · From Jet Wong
Catalog: Economics 
43 days ago · From Jet Wong
Catalog: Military science 
43 days ago · From Jet Wong
Catalog: Law 
48 days ago · From Jet Wong
Catalog: Economics 
48 days ago · From Jet Wong

New publications:

Popular with readers:

News from other countries:

BIBLIO.VN - Vietnam Digital Library

Create your author's collection of articles, books, author's works, biographies, photographic documents, files. Save forever your author's legacy in digital form. Click here to register as an author.
Library Partners


Editorial Contacts
Chat for Authors: VN LIVE: We are in social networks:

About · News · For Advertisers

Vietnam Digital Library ® All rights reserved.
2023-2024, BIBLIO.VN is a part of Libmonster, international library network (open map)
Keeping the heritage of Vietnam


US-Great Britain Sweden Serbia
Russia Belarus Ukraine Kazakhstan Moldova Tajikistan Estonia Russia-2 Belarus-2

Create and store your author's collection at Libmonster: articles, books, studies. Libmonster will spread your heritage all over the world (through a network of affiliates, partner libraries, search engines, social networks). You will be able to share a link to your profile with colleagues, students, readers and other interested parties, in order to acquaint them with your copyright heritage. Once you register, you have more than 100 tools at your disposal to build your own author collection. It's free: it was, it is, and it always will be.

Download app for Android