T. A. DMITRENKO. The Socialist Emulation Movement and Its Role in Developed Socialist Society
The article analyzes the development of the socialist emulation movement under the influence of a number of factors characterizing the entry of the Soviet state into a period of developed socialism, as well as under the impact of far-reaching measures carried out with the aim of intensifying production. Examining the steadily widening scope of socialist emulation and the gradual heightening of its role in the fulfilment of national economic development plans during the three main stages (the seven-year plan, the eighth and the ninth five-year-plan periods), the author focusses attention on the objective laws governing the dynamics of the movement, on the development of its principles and organizational forms, constant perfection of the methods of guiding and stimulating the movement, on the nature of the difficulties and contradictions attending the growth of the movement and ways and means of overcoming them. The quantitative and qualitative characteristics underlying the specific features of each particular period are revealed by the author on the example of those forms of emulation which were most typical of the sixties and seventies and which became very widespread in the labour collectives of the various branches of the national economy of the U.S.S.R., notably on the example of the mass movement for a communist attitude to labour.
S. Y. KOSUKHKIN and V. V. MALINOVSKY. For Genuine Authenticity of Works of Fiction Based on Documentary Materials
Recent years have witnessed heightened and steadily growing interest in works of fiction based on documentary materials. The authors express their point of view on the substance of this genre, emphasizing that a vivid, esthetically expressive form must be organically combined in such works with a faithful, scrupulous reflection of the events described, which form the underlying basis of these works. Unfortunately it has to be admitted that some works of fiction belonging to the genre of documentary literature and dealing with historic and revolutionary themes suffer from a number of serious shortcomings. Analyzing individual works of this genre, the authors single out the most typical mistakes and shortcomings of this kind and reveal the causes responsible for them.
R. G. SKRYNNIKOV. Serfdom and the Rise of the Corvee System in Russia in the 16th Century
The article examines the problem of the economically conditioned enslavement of the peasants in Russia at the close of the 16th century. The author gives a new interpretation of the cadastres, registers and other documents kept by the Novgorod office during that period. His comprehensive study of these unique sources enables the author to draw the conclusion that the corvee system became a significant economic phenomenon in the history of manorial estates and that the tendency towards increasing the size of the peasants' labour rent acquired a very distinct and stable character by the close of the. 16th century. The emergence of corvee and the rise of serfdom in the 16th century constituted two sides of one and the same process of development of the system of serfdom based on corvee within the framework of the feudal formation.
V. P. SMIRNOV. French Historiography of the Resistance Movement
The article examines the process of development of the historiography of the Resistance Movement in France from its inception in the years of the second world war to our days. The author singles out the Marxist-Leninist, anti- Vichy and pro-Vichy trends as the principal historiographic tendencies. Pointing out that the historiography of the Resistance Movement is closely linked with politics and publicism, the author investigates the main stages in its development: the early postwar years, the cold war period and the period of the Fifth Republic. Particular attention is devoted in the article to highlighting the theoretical problems in the history of the Resistance Movement, the activity of the national research centres, the struggle between different historiographic trends and their evolution. The author notes that the tendency towards depicting more objectively the
important contribution made by the French Communist Party to the development and spread of the Resistance Movement and the decisive role played by the Soviet Union in the defeat of fascism has become more pronounced in French bourgeois literature during the past few years.
L. VLADIMIROV. Problems of the National-Liberation Movement in Kenya (Sources and Literature)
The article contains a brief analysis of the sources and literature relating to the national-liberation movement in Kenya. The author closely examines materials published in the U.S.S.R., Kenya, Britain and other countries, which highlight the national-liberation movement and the struggle waged by the people of Kenya Tor their independence. Particular attention is given to a critical analysis of the sources and monographs describing what is generally known as the "Mau-Mau" armed uprising which flared up in Kenya in the 1950's and played an important part in helping the people of that country to win their independence. The author exposes the fabrications spread by bourgeois historiography in its efforts to distort the nature and aims of the Kenyan liberation movement. A conspicuous place is devoted in the article to Soviet historiography, with the author focussing attention on those aspects of the problem that have already been thoroughly investigated by Soviet historians, while at the same time singling out questions which have been inadequately studied and which require further research.
Academician M. A. KOROSTOVTSEV. Ancient Egypt: Problems of History
The article examines the present state of research in the problems of the socio-economic system prevailing in Ancient Egypt. The author makes a point of stressing the patently inadequate elaboration of the aspect of differentiating this system according to the basic periods of the country's history, as well as the lack of reliable information at the disposal of modern science indispensable for elucidating the factors responsible for the absence in the history of Ancient Egypt of such phenomena as colonization (similar to that of Greece). The author also touches on the reasons for alternating centralization and the country's, division into nomes, etc.
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