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From February 12 to 14, the Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences hosted the XXXVII scientific conference "Society and the State in China". Reports on various topics related to various aspects of the history and life of the PRC and Taiwan were presented for discussion. In particular, attention was paid to the problems of modern China, its place in the process of globalization, ancient and modern history, archeology, culture, ideology and literature of this country.

The conference was attended by 81 participants from scientific institutions of Moscow (IB RAS, IDV RAS, ISAA at Moscow State University, IMLI RAS, RSUH, Istfak MSU), St. Petersburg (Eastern Faculty of St. Petersburg State University, State University of Oriental Studies). Hermitage Museum), Eastern University at the Institute of History of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Linguistic University, MGIMO (U) The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, the Higher School of Economics, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, the St. Thomas Institute of Philosophy and Theology, the State Museum of Oriental Studies, scientists from Vladivostok, Chelyabinsk, students of various Moscow universities of humanities, representatives of the Embassies of China and India in Moscow.

A number of reports were devoted to the role and place of China in the modern world, its integration into the process of globalization.

A. N. Korneev (ISAA) noted a great interest in the process of globalization in China, as evidenced, in particular, by the recent publication of more than 30 books on this topic, discussions about the reality or, conversely, some phantominess of globalization going on in the country. It is considered against the background of the objective course of world development in the past century, divided into four periods: 1) division into center-forming and peripheral states-before World War II; 2) vertical division of labor, i.e. a certain subordination of the production process in less developed countries to more developed ones-from the end of World War II to the 1970s; 3) transition to horizontal division of labor, characterized by the" withdrawal " of part of production from developed countries 4) the current division of labor, when the basis is becoming an increasing turnover of services, not just goods, international cooperation in the field of production and exchange is developing, and the process of democratization and openness is expanding. In general, the speaker believes that China is inclined to participate in globalization, and the modern ruling elite is making successful steps in this direction. But at the same time, there is a desire to preserve a certain autonomous position of the PRC in this process, to prevent the westernization of the country.

V. S. Kuznetsov (IDV RAS) also pointed out a number of concrete signs of the inclusion of modern China in the process of globalization. The country maintains broad international relations in the sphere of not only economic, but also cultural contacts at various levels. So, in large cities there are many foreign companies and stores. It pays tribute to all the useful things that Western civilization has brought and can bring to China. Western fashion, foreign holidays (for example, St. Valentine's Day, etc.) are common. But to what extent do these signs of globalization affect the spiritual world of the general population? And what is the attitude of the ruling Chinese Communist Party to this process? These questions remain open, because the above-mentioned phenomena are combined with the preservation of traditional principles in China. In this regard, the speaker noted, it is worth considering whether the term "globalization" is generally appropriate for the above-mentioned processes in China, because it will always be "open" only as much as it will be beneficial for the country.

A. N. Zhelokhovtsev (IDV) believes that certain signs of the country's globalization can also be found in Chinese literature. Some works of contemporary Chinese writers

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translated into foreign languages and published on all continents. Among them are world-class bestsellers, such as "Baby from Shanghai". Literary works are distributed over the Internet. Along with preserving and popularizing the classical heritage, entertainment literature and literary studies exist and are being developed, and discussions are being held on various issues raised by writers.

The situation related to China's position in the modern world was touched upon in the report of E. O. Podolko (Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation), devoted to the country's foreign policy. It was noted that China is currently experiencing a period of rapid development: industry and trade are growing rapidly, foreign exchange reserves are increasing, and enterprises with mixed (with foreign participation) capital are functioning. The country's success is undeniable, and it can be said that it is approaching the level of a "superpower". In the foreign policy course, there is an increasing departure from the previous one-linearity and a certain degree of flexibility. The current concept of the country's foreign policy is based on the desire, according to Hu Jintao, to maintain "harmony in the world." In general, the country's foreign policy is based on the principles of strict adherence to independence, avoiding "hugs or quarrels" with anyone, showing flexibility according to circumstances, and maintaining the image of China as a great power.

Problems related to the domestic political situation in the country were raised in the report of M. V. Karpov (ISAA). Attention was drawn to the fact that the views and publications of foreign observers writing about China contain a lot of far-fetched things that do not correspond to reality. The current situation here is sometimes very far from the postulated stereotypes. In particular, the idea that since the 60s and 70s of the XX century in China there has been a struggle between reformist pragmatists and reactionary dogmatists has been fixed. But at present, the content of internal political contradictions has radically changed: there is a confrontation between the leading circles of the south-eastern provinces of the country, which are the most rapidly developing and closely connected with the outside world, on the one hand, and the central regions, whose development is based primarily on their own resources, on the other. Conventionally, these opposing forces can be designated as "Shanghainese"and " Pekingese". The contradictions between the warring parties are caused by ideological differences. They represent two different models of the country's further development, two different types of economy: one that is oriented towards ever closer integration into a system led by economically advanced countries, or one that relies primarily on its own internal capabilities.

According to the speaker, this confrontation can have very dangerous consequences for the country, since under certain circumstances it can lead to a systemic crisis. If not now, then after some time, China will have to decide on the ways and extent of its integration into the global system. This is complicated by the presence of a number of problems related to internal socio-economic integration: in addition to the growth of the central region focused mainly on internal reserves and aimed at further incorporation into the world systems of the eastern region, there are also conservative - minded regions-Manchurian, as well as western, where some separatist tendencies have not been eliminated. The solution to all these problems will depend to a certain extent on the position of the central government - Hu Jintao and his entourage. But its capabilities are also somewhat limited by the complexity of the situation described above.

The internal political situation in modern China, but in a different social context, was touched upon in the report of G. B. Korets (IDV), who set out to give a social portrait of the modern Chinese, as it appears in the work of the Chinese writer Te Ning. In her works, there is an image of a native of the village who moved to the city. This phenomenon (the outflow of people unable to support their existence in the countryside to the cities) is very relevant for modern China. Touching on the reason for this phenomenon, Tie Ning believes that life in the Chinese village is not so bad now, but in the city it is still better and more comfortable. Her hero is not satisfied with many things in the city, but here he has the opportunity to make a career, climb the social ladder. At the same time, the hero is by no means unscrupulous and does not build his well-being at the expense of others. He acts quite actively, and this brings him success. In general, referring to the problem of migration from rural areas to cities, which is relevant for today's China, Te Ning believes that this process has objective grounds, that it is not only negative, but also in terms of-

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It is particularly positive and that, despite the problems that arise in this regard, there are also prospects.

S. Y. Vradiy's report (Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences) was devoted to changes in the perception of Russia in China since the 19th century. Lin Zexu, a prominent Chinese political figure of the time, wrote that in the early period of its existence, Russia was not a country that could be attributed to the leading world powers, and that is why it could not resist the Mongol conquest. It emerged as one of the world's leading powers after the Napoleonic Wars and flourished rapidly in the 19th century. Russia at that time was perceived, along with other leading European states, as an expansionist country that had taken away the "northern territories"from China. Soviet Russia, especially since the 1950s, was seen as a friend and an example for China's development. During the infamous times of the "cultural revolution" in the PRC, Russia/USSR was regarded as an imperialist enemy and adversary. At the present time, Russia is presented in China as a country of high culture, in many ways, in a positive sense, opposing the United States. At the same time, modern Russia is regarded by the Chinese as a country experiencing some internal "discord", a country where much is unstable and unclear, and hence it is concluded that at the moment it cannot be an example for China's development.

As at previous conferences on "Society and the State in China", much attention was paid to the problems of China's rich and diverse history. The report of D. V. Deopik and M. Y. Ulyanov (both ISAA) was devoted to the problems of the emergence of statehood in ancient China. The difficulty of determining the temporal and spatial boundaries of the transition from the Neolithic order to early statehood in China, which is related to certain reasons - the heterogeneous interpretation of available sources. Recent studies of the authors of the report allow them to believe that one of the earliest centers of statehood was the territory near Lake Taihu, where the beginnings of social structure and hierarchy appeared, and writing appeared. One of the important features of early statehood, in addition to power institutions and religion, is the emergence of cities with their components of urban life that differ from the previous way of life. The first signs of statehood in China date back to 8-7 thousand BC. e. Between 5 thousand years and 3.5 thousand years BC. e. in the territory of modern China, there were about nine centers of statehood: in the same area of Lake Taihu, in the Yangtze River basin, in Shandong. At the same time, it is the central and southern cultures that have the strongest influence. Later, approximately from the second half of the 3rd millennium BC. However, signs of early statehood are also evident in the northern territories of China. The report sparked a discussion about the priority of southern or northern influence in the formation of the most ancient Chinese statehood.

M. E. Kuznetsova-Fetisova (IV RAS) described the Chinese ritual art of the Shang-Yin period (XIV-XI centuries BC). She noted that so far no jade products related to this time have been found. Very few bronze objects have also been preserved. At the same time, a large number of ceramic products and objects made of stone and bone, many vessels for various purposes, religious and ritual objects decorated with various ornaments were found. However, images of people are extremely rare. There are also no stories that reflect their activities. There are certain symbols, a connection with the cult of fertility is visible. There are images of animals: tigers, dragons, fish, birds, and cicadas. According to the speaker, the image system can be recognized as integral, although it has changed over time.

The report of S. I. Blumchen (Institute of History of the Russian Academy of Sciences) was devoted to the characteristics of ancient Chinese cults and the concept of chaos in ancient China during the Zhou period (XI-VIII centuries BC). At this time, according to the speaker, China develops certain prescribed standards in the relationship of the ruler with the deified Sky. They replace the mulberry cult that existed in the previous Shang-Yin period. The concept of "The Will of heaven" begins to be used and the purpose of the ruler is determined to transfer it to the earth, i.e. to his subjects. Initially, the cult of the Sky was widespread only in the "upper classes" of society. In the "lower classes" the images of the Mother-Ancestor were revered. The whole complex of cults characteristic of the lower classes seems to be comparable with later Taoist postulates. The concept of "chaos" that appeared had a different meaning from the one that was later spread among Europeans and was understood by the ancient Chinese as the source of the creation of all things. This is what the early ideas have in common with the later Taoism.

The report sparked a discussion about the ancient Chinese interpretation of such concepts as "Sky", "Tao", "Chaos", dualism "light and darkness", etc.

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The report of V. A. Belyaev and S. V. Sidorevich (State Hermitage Museum) contained information about a recent archaeological find in Central Asia (in Suyaba) of a credential tag with a small text that sheds light on the deployment of Chinese troops in this area in the VII-IX centuries - during the Tang period. A translation of the text from Old Chinese was proposed. During the discussion, this period was clarified.

In his speech, S. I. Kucher (Institute of Legal Sciences of the Russian Academy of Sciences) touched upon the peculiarities of Chinese traditional law. He noted that the normative codes that have existed since ancient times cannot be called legislative in the full sense of the word, because they contain a list of punishments for certain crimes and do not concern rights as such at all. Even if we assume that there were some other written codes, prescribed norms of behavior, they have not been preserved. Chinese traditional law can be described as administrative, imposing duties on the entire population and operating in all areas of the complex state administration machine.

A. A. Bokshchanin (Institute of History of the Russian Academy of Sciences) focused on the evolution of the views of Russian scientists regarding the general characteristics of the history of China during the Ming Empire (1368-1644). In the approach of historians and sociologists of the 1920s, a negative assessment of the phenomena that occurred during this period in the socio-political and economic life of the country is noticeable. Even the previous Ming period of the Mongol conquerors ' rule in China was evaluated more positively than the mentioned one. The departure from this point of view is primarily due to the position expressed by Academician N. I. Konrad. He drew attention to the losses that China suffered during the Mongol conquest and the subsequent rule of the Mongol Yuan Dynasty. In this regard, the restoration of the Chinese statehood proper and the further development of the country was defined by him as positive and progressive. Such an assessment was more fully confirmed and developed in the works of L. V. Simonovskaya and L. I. Duman, and then on specific examples concerning the political, economic and social life of the country during the war in the works of E. P. Stuzhina, N. P. Svistunova, L. A. Borovkova, N. I. Fomina, A. A. Bokshchanin, V. A. Shishchanin. V. Malyavin, O. E. Nepomnin and other Russian Sinologists and Orientalists. At the same time, paying tribute to the positive processes in the development of Chinese society at the end of the XIV-XVI centuries, these researchers stated that the Ming Empire in the last decades of its existence was marked by a number of depressive and crisis phenomena that complicated the internal situation in the country and led to the fall of the empire.

Interesting details of the attempts of the Mongol rulers who reigned in China in the 13th century to conquer Japan were presented in the report of A. S. Kadyrbaev (Institute of History of the Russian Academy of Sciences). Han and the Chinese Emperor Kublai initially tried to subdue the Japanese through peaceful negotiations, in which he was assisted by Korean "intermediaries". But the Japanese side did not give in to persuasion and, moreover, provided assistance to the descendants of the Song dynasty who fled from China. The failure of negotiations and the desire to seize the riches of Japan led to attempts by the Mongol ruling court to conquer it. The Mongol-Chinese fleet with an impressive army with the help of Koreans twice (in 1274 and 1281) went to the coast of Japan. In the first case, the storm sank a significant part of the attacking fleet, and they had to retreat. In the second case, the Japanese gave a worthy rebuff to the attackers. Normal relations between the Mongol-Chinese Yuan Empire and Japan gradually began to improve only in the first half of the 14th century. This was greatly facilitated by the connections that existed between Japanese and Chinese Buddhist monks and monasteries.

MS Bugrova (MSU) introduced the audience to the new materials revealed regarding the participation of England in the settlement of the Franco-Chinese conflict of 1883-1885, which was based on the colonization of Vietnam by the French. The British made an intermediary mission through individual individuals, in particular R. Hart, using financial levers to ensure maritime trade with China. This resulted in success.

Z. D. Katkova (IB RAS) highlighted the activities of prominent Chinese diplomat Wang Zhengting. Sympathetic to Western powers and the United States, he nevertheless refused to sign the Treaty of Versailles after the First World War. Later, as China's Foreign Minister, he participated in many international conferences. At the same time, he repeatedly opposed American initiatives that affected China's interests. The time of its greatest activity in the international arena was the turn of the 1920s-1930s. His signature is under 40 international standards.

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agreements of that time. In general, all his efforts were aimed at maintaining China's rightful place in the world community.

The report of A. N. Khokhlov (Institute of History of the Russian Academy of Sciences) was devoted to the assessment of the activities of a prominent Chinese political figure of modern times, Li Hongzhang. In particular, he noted that the letters of the well-known Russian sinologist K. A. Skachkov contain a lot of still little-known information, the use of which would allow us to imagine the personality of Li Hongzhang and his activities in a new way.

A. L. Ryabinin (Institute of History of the Russian Academy of Sciences) highlighted the role of Chinese emigration, and in particular of the Chinese merchant class, in the Vietnam Civil War in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. The main driving forces in the struggle against the authorities were not so much the peasants, who made up the bulk of the population, as small proprietors, merchants and artisans from the city and village. Various national minorities, including the Chinese, also supported the rebels. Moreover, despite some ambiguity regarding the course of the uprising due to the limited historical sources, it can be argued that the Chinese played a very significant role in it and even briefly seized real power in South Vietnam.

As at previous conferences, much attention was paid to the problems of Chinese ideology and culture. A. I. Kobzev (IB RAS) touched upon the problems of the mystical meaning of color in traditional Chinese ideology. So, the red color had, among other things, an allegorical designation of alchemy. Dark colors, and especially dark red, were perceived as something mystical. At the same time, the same symbols are polysemous. If you look closely at the Chinese tradition, you can identify a very multi-layered imaginative series of relationships: color-symbols-heroes-characters. At the same time, all colors are eroticized in a certain aspect. This is due to the relationship of color with the feminine principle "yin", which brings a certain sexuality here.

A. A. Krushinsky (IB RAS) devoted his speech to the characterization of traditional Chinese logic. In his opinion, Chinese logic is relatively poorly studied by non-Chinese scientists, among whom there was an opinion that logic is a purely European phenomenon, originating from the ancient Greeks. If there were any attempts to study Chinese logic by Europeans, it was exclusively in line with European concepts of logic. Hence, among European scientists, there was an opinion about the" undeveloped " Chinese logic. This was due to the lack of understanding and non-recognition of the specifics of Chinese logic by foreign science. It even went so far as to completely deny the existence of logical thinking in the Chinese. But in China, since ancient times, a different system of logic was born and developed from the European one. It can be traced in the text of the ancient Chinese treatise "The Book of Changes" ("I Ching"), the appearance and interpretation of hexagrams. As a type of theorizing, it is complex and constructive. Its characteristic feature is its close connection with mathematics, in which the Chinese have excelled since ancient times. But, of course, it was a different type of logic than the European one, and to some extent "alternative" to it.

The interpretation of hexagrams was proposed in the report of V. M. Yakovlev (Institute of Mathematics of the Russian Academy of Sciences). According to the report, they reflect a very ancient layer of Chinese ideology and culture, are connected with the divination practice of the ancient Chinese and with the "Book of Changes" ("I ching"). There are 64 of them. They are arranged in a meaningful order, forming some combination of" trunks "(main) and" branches " (secondary). Each hexagram has its own meaning that can be translated. But over time, the order of hexagrams began to change, and the general meaning of certain groups of hexagrams changed accordingly. The task of the researcher is to restore the original order of hexagrams associated with calendar calculations, and to establish options for changing the meaning of combinations formed by the permutation of "nomadic" hexagrams.

A new interpretation of some important aspects in understanding the ideology and culture of the ancient Chinese was proposed by K. I. Golygina (Institute of History of the Russian Academy of Sciences). Analyzing the text of the ancient Chinese treatise "Canon of Mountains and Seas "("Shan hai Ching"), she described it as an astrological text containing at the same time calendar calculations. It contains the concept of "Great Year", which has a length of more than 5 thousand years, which is divided into shorter periods of time. The text is filled with numbers, and there are hexagrams in it. But its general meaning is hidden from the "uninitiated". Liu Xiu, who lived in the Han period (II century BC - III century AD), is involved in the processing of this text. The calendar principles contained in the text are oriented towards the Sun and

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Jupiter. The interpretation of the meaning laid down here is also found in the "Historical Records" ("Shi ji") Сыма Цяня. Liu Xiu proceeded from the concept of the beginning and end of time, i.e. time here is not" historical", but connected with the cycles of Jupiter. In other words, this is calendar astronomy. In modern China, however, there is a tendency to interpret the entire text as a geographical description, ignoring its astronomical and astrological meaning, which, according to the speaker, cannot be agreed with.

I. P. Karezina (Institute of Philosophy, Theology and History of St. Thomas) also presented a report on the problems of Chinese ideology and culture: "Terminology of symbols of Faith in the Catechisms of N. Ya. Bichurin and Francesco Brancasti". The report noted that during N. Ya. Bichurin's stay in China (the beginning of the XIX century), the Russian settlers who were here had already thoroughly forgotten their rites and customs. Therefore, to preserve them in the bosom of the church, he used the catechism translated into Chinese by Brancasti. But at the same time, Bichurin made many amendments to the text and gave his own interpretation of the main terms, such as God the Father, God the Son, the Holy Spirit, etc.

V. Ts Golovachev (Institute of Political Science of the Russian Academy of Sciences) noted in his report that at present Taiwan has an acute problem of self-identification and developing its own national ideology. This takes into account the self-consciousness of the Aborigines who have settled Taiwan since ancient times. This self-awareness is largely associated with the revival and preservation of the languages they lost over time. Remnants of these languages are sometimes preserved in symbolic form, such as body tattoos. This report sparked a discussion of the "Taiwan question" - the current political course of Taiwanese leaders-among the participants of the conference.

The conference also touched upon the problems of Chinese art. T. P. Vinogradova (St. Petersburg) touched upon the study of such a specific type of fine art in China as"folk picture". For the first time, Academician V. M. Alekseev addressed its systematic study. Such pictures appeared in China even before the invention of printing (in the Tang period-618-907). The speaker believes that this type of art has existed here since the turn of the new era. The printing process was laborious: from different boards, engraved to match a certain color. It is possible that later printing in China arose from the experience of printing "folk pictures". But they remained a special, non-book genre.

Academicians S. L. Tikhvinsky, V. S. Myasnikov, and E. L. Riftin made brief information presentations on projects planned for the near future - works in the field of Chinese studies, as well as interesting new book publications.

In conclusion, A. N. Khokhlov made a report on the outstanding contribution to Russian Sinology of L. I. Duman (1907-1979), whose centenary of birth is celebrated in the coming year.

The conference materials were published by the publishing house "Vostochnaya Literatura". The collection "XXXVII Scientific Conference" Society and the State in China "(Moscow, 2007) contains the texts of reports and those authors who could not attend or speak at the conference.


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