Libmonster ID: VN-1304

article, translated from Chinese and commented by K. I. GOLYGINA

The Book of Mountains and Seas is known to the Russian reader in the translation of E. M. Yanshina's Catalog of Mountains and Seas (Moscow, 1977, 1st ed.), which embodied the ideas about the monument that had developed by that time in Chinese and Western science. The Book of Mountains and Seas is a geographical description of mountains, hills and deserts and the unusual animals and birds that live on them, it is a description of kingdoms and their strange inhabitants, places where the gods live and their resting places. Modern researchers of the" Book of Mountains and Seas " in China, emphasizing any one thematic aspect of the text, suggest that it should be considered: the world's first geographical description of ancient China or the rich lands of the Chinese paradise, or even territories from the Pamirs to the west, covering Russia and Bulgaria and all the oceans; description of the Inca country in North America; an ancient encyclopedia of everything; mythology; the ancient history of the clans that originated from Huang-di, Yao, Shun and other divine progenitors. At the same time, no one doubts that it is the landscape that is described in the basis. The geographical concept won all translations of the monument into European and Eastern languages.

But in the history of Chinese bibliographic science, the geographical interpretation of the monument was not the only one and generally recognized. The historian Ban Gu (32-92 AD), in his work" History of the House of Han", dedicated to the Han Dynasty (206 BC - 220 AD), in the section" Description of arts and literature", referred this text to the "Art of Numbers", as he saw in it the embodiment of the practice of interpreting signs by the outlines of celestial bodies. Therefore, in his time, the Book of Mountains and Seas was perceived as a book of signs revealed by the heavens. In the " History of the House of Sui "(ding. Sui: 581 - 618), the monument was assigned to the section "History", considering it as a historically determined geography, in the "History of the House of Song" (ding. Song: 960 - 1279) - to the section "Philosophy", subsection " The Doctrine of the Five During the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), it was considered a source of narrative, and during the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), it was included in the section "Xiao Niu" ("Small Sayings"), because again the opinion prevailed that it was a book of signs. Lu Xin (1881-1936), emphasizing the peculiarities of language and formulaic methods of recording information, called it the "book of priests", Mao Dun (1896-1952) saw it as mythology. In Russian science, the content of the book is considered as a pseudogeography and a source of myth (E. M. Yanshina, B. L. Riftin, I. S. Lisevich).

One of the first references to the "Book of Mountains and Seas" is found in the dictionary " Erya "(compiled under din. Han), which comments on the vocabulary of canonical texts ("Books of Songs" - Shi Jing, "Books of Changes" - I Jing, etc.) and partly "Books of Mountains and Seas". One explanation of the meaning of the Book of Mountains and Seas states:: "All [space] that is covered by [the planet]' Earth '(di, the 'name' of Jupiter), from the zodiac zone under the cyclic signs of jia [1st zodiac zone in the Tian gan system of Jupiter's 'celestial hangers'] to the 'ninth river' [9th zodiac zone of Shen in the system di Zhi of the "earth branches" of Anti-Jupiter], is named after the Great Yu. After reviewing the book" Offering sacrificial gifts to Yu "(Yu Xiang), which is divination by the visible outlines of the zodiacs, we realized that the section "Books of Mountains and Seas", called "The Book of five Mountains", allegorically speaking about "mountains" and "rivers", records the Tao, a calendar Path measured in linear lines hardly. Truly, this is the "Book of Yu", without a doubt" [Shanhai jing..., 1999, p. 104]. The authors of the dictionary considered the "Book of Mountains and Seas" for a calendar that embodies the methods of measuring the sky by the Polar Star (Yu-fa) - "Methods of measuring [the sky]".-

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yes] by Yu." (Yu is a mythical emperor and deity of the North Star, sometimes called "the Emperor".)

The first commentators came closest to understanding the monument: Liu Xiu (63 BC-23 AD) and Guo Pu (276-324 AD). Liu Xiu, in a "Report on the Book of Mountains and Seas" submitted to the Emperor Ai-di (ruled: 6 BC - 1 AD), defined the monument as "The Book of Emperor Yu", i.e., like the Yu-fa calendar. Liu Xiu wrote: "Yu, having created the ' Book of Mountains and Seas', defined the differences of the 'Nine Regions-lands' and made it a duty for worthy men to offer sacrifices, and thereby reduced the evil and increased the virtues that the heavenly bodies [zodiacs] promised." For Liu Xiu, it tells primarily about the meanings of star images, non-verbal speech of the Sky, revealed in atypical, "amazing" (qi) zodiacs, which is why he calls it " the book of unusual phenomena "(qi shu). He writes: "The great Confucians, who were well-read in literature, believed that by strange cases one can judge the intention of spirits expressed through the annunciation or evil signs, which can also be learned from the prophetic songs (yao) sung by wonderful holy fools-newcomers from distant countries" [Shanhai ching..., 1936, Preface, p. 4]. In the prophetic songs of the young men(yao) unconsciously repeated words supposedly inspired by the Sky, and the images of the zodiacs in the form of wondrous birds, animals, and fish are the same signs embodied in bizarre combinations of stars. For Liu Xiu, the Shanhai Ching is a ritual book that prescribes what sacrifices should be offered to the deities of the constellations and the planet Jupiter when unfavorable signs appear. He calls the authors of the" Book of Mountains and Seas "the mythical" pacifier of the flood waters " - Emperor Yu and his assistant Bo Yi. The thesis of the authors of the dictionary "Erya "that the" Book of Mountains and Seas "is a calendar Tao -" A path measured in linear measures", drowned in commentator's remarks about the oddities of the world depicted in it. Although the idea was once again clearly expressed in the "Continuation of the History of the House of Han "in the" Life of Wang Jing "in the words of the Emperor Ming-di, who on the manuscript presented to him by the dignitary Wang Jing" Description of rivers and ditches in the "Book of Mountains and Seas" " wrote: "It is quite obvious that this is a canonical book [about the zodiac Path], in which "mountains" and "rivers" are designated by Cart [ -]. Bay Dou] and Earth [ - Jupiter]. It is an ancient work about the Tao that can work for the world [of humans], not a speech about devilry."., 1999, p. 104].

Another commentator of the Book of Mountains and Seas and author of the preface, Guo Pu, was most interested in identifying the mountains mentioned in the text with the actual geographical space, although he did not exclude the calendar basis of the monument as a whole. It was Guo Pu who established the tradition of reading the text literally, which still dominates science today. Guo Pu believed that the true meaning of the Book of Mountains and Seas was forgotten, but nevertheless believed that it could be restored, because all the phenomena of the world can be objects of human knowledge, especially if they are created by the creative power of wonderful spirits and sky-traveling souls. And then, being known, these objects will pass from "strange" (and) to the category of "not strange". At the same time, he refers to the ancient "bamboo books" - " if they had not sunk into oblivion a thousand years ago, they would have served to clarify the present days, and then how meaningless the prophetic words "Books of Mountains and Seas" would seem to us "... Alas! Have we not gained at least a little insight in the mass of doubt?" "As for this book itself,"he wrote," it has come to us from those times that lie beyond seven generations." They indicate a period of 210 years, counted from the year of Liu Xiu's death. "This book is a calendar spanning three thousand years," he writes, " and although it clearly marked itself during the Han Dynasty, its traces are lost. There are a lot of lies in the names of these mountains and rivers, and they don't match the current names. Since the teachers of this teaching failed to pass it on to posterity, the book was inevitably doomed to oblivion, and the Tao - calendar Path recorded in the "Book of Mountains and Seas" was buried by the profane. Alas! How sad and sad it is!" [Shanhai jing..., 1936, Preface, p. 9]. Guo Pu expressed an important idea that the meanings of the "Book of Mountains and Seas" were passed down from generation to generation by word of mouth as a special knowledge closed to the uninitiated, which disappeared due to the change in the calendar along with its carriers.

According to the testimony of Liu Xiu and Guo Pu ,the "Book of Mountains and Seas", like any calendar-astronomical text, had diagrams-drawings (tu). Liu Xiu wrote: "In ancient times, the books of scripture (shu) had both drawings (tu) and words." In one of the comments, Guo Pu described the following drawing: "The outline of the drawing scheme was similar to the outline of the constellation Nu ("Bull"), and there was also a Cloud [symbol and "name"]. Bay Dou], located in the middle of images of an intimidating animal species. The host [action] read verses [from the "Book of Songs"], while the Cloud was shifted in accordance with the contemplation-

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collection of drawings of "mountains" and "seas" "[Shanhai jing..., 1999, p. 8]. The description of the diagram-drawing left by Guo Pu is very similar to the map of the sky painted with zodiac images, in the middle of which the constellation Bei Dou was usually placed rotating on its axis. Something like this, with a compass in the form of the constellation Bei Dou, the ancient calendar disks of pan were arranged, on which the Bucket Handle was installed according to the zodiac constellations and in accordance with the cardinal directions. In the 20th century, a fragment of a bronze vessel dating back to the Zhanguo era (475 - 221 BC) - the "Warring States" - was discovered in Jiangsu Province, where the zodiacs were depicted in the form of very fantastic animals and conditional calendar trees with different numbers of branches were clearly written out in a certain rhythm and sections with a set of similar ones were highlighted characters. The same calendar meaning had fantastic animals and anthropomorphic figures written on the text known as "Silk from Chu", discovered by English archaeologists in the 50s of the XX century.

The name of the monument itself speaks about the calendar-astronomical character of the "Book of Mountains and Seas" - the phrase "Shanhai jing" can be interpreted as "A canon about the [calendar] spaces of the firmament, marked as "mountains" [according to Bei Dou] and "seas" [according to Jupiter] and located from the south and south-west of the earth."west to north and northeast." The word" mountain "in the priestly lexicon is synonymous with the south and southwest, while" sea " is synonymous with the northeast and east. [Erya..., 1999, p. 190]. "Mountains" are constellations and their zodiacs within certain limits of the zodiac space of different lengths, corresponding to the calendar month, year, segments of the priestly calendar cycle of the Yuan or the 60-year calendar "Jia-tzu". The word jing - " canon "in the title" Books of Mountains and Seas "caused constant confusion among commentators, since it was not canonical, like the books of the"Six Books". The contemporary researcher Yuan Ke, who specifically commented on this monument, noted that the first five chapters are the" calendar along the route of the stars " - jingli: the first sign of jing means "route of the 28 zodiac constellations" ("canon" - its later meaning), the second sign of li - "calendar" [Shanhai jing, 1988, p. 181; Golygina, 2003]. But this thesis has not been developed in the works of modern Chinese authors [see: Shanhai Jing..., 1999, p. 34].

The Book of Mountains and Seas is also a catalog of zodiacs. The astronomical basis of the amazing zodiacs-objects that were recorded in ancient calendar books, already by the time of the historian Sima Qian [c. 145 (or 135) BC-c. 86 BC the truth was unclear, and the very interpretation of them as omens was like witchcraft. Sima Qian admits that he does not dare to talk about the extremely bizarre objects (wu) contained in the "Annual Records of Emperor Yu" (Yu ben ji) and the "Book of Mountains and Seas".

"The Book of Mountains and Seas" uses the terms of astronomical science and political astrology of ancient China, which are explained in sufficient detail in the ancient dictionary "Erya" in the sections "Sky", "Earth", "Hills", "Mountains", "Waters", "Grasses", "Trees", "Birds", "Animals". For example, the term "mountain" says: "The' mountain ' is an announcement. The announcement of the substance that gives birth to 10 thousand" things "- [zodiacs], which have the measure of a "stone" [i.e., located in latitude] and height [i.e., located in longitude]. This is the configuration outline of their image (xiang xing)" [Erya..., 1999, p. 208]. The word "stone" (shi) in the text is understood as a "boundary marker", i.e. a square is a unit used to mark the area of the celestial space. On the sky map, this is a cell formed by a grid of latitudes and longitudes. In the" Book of Changes "(I Ching), " images "(xiang) are called" weaving stars "(wen xiang) of the"five palaces of the firmament". About the term "tree" we read: "The" tree "(mu) is [Jupiter], it assigns a "foreign" [name]. [Calendar values] are born as [combinations] with the [planet] that assigns "alien", and [planet] that walks on the "earth" - "earth branches", it moves to the east " [Erya..., 1999, p. 267]. Anti-Jupiter moves to the east, "appropriates someone else's" - Jupiter, as it moves against the Sun.

According to Erya, Anti-Jupiter is not a pseudo-planet, but a "genuine", "true" planet, although it does not have its own coordinates, it gets them from the positions of Bei Dou and Jupiter, which is also encoded by the symbol "earth", while Anti-Jupiter is encoded by the symbol "grass". "Grass" - Anti-Jupiter is given life by "earth" - Jupiter. About the term" grass", Erya writes: "" Grass "(cao) is a modified spelling of the sign meaning "second"." This is the name of a stand-in planet, the second "Sun", a planet that moves like the Sun. There is a strong correspondence between the symbol " tree "(mu) and Jupiter (mu xing, "star of the element "tree""). The combination "grass and tree" (cao mu) is usually used to indicate the coordinated positions of Anti-Jupiter and Jupiter. Explanations of the dictionary "Erya" suggest that under the cao ("grass") means-

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We also refer to the constellation Bei Dou, which duplicated the positions of Anti-Jupiter (Erya..., 1999, p. 230), which figuratively refers to the "sons of the constellation Dou" (Dou tzu) - "positions". [Bei] Dou under the 1st cyclic sign zi " (the word zi lit. "child")].

The peculiarity of the structure of the " Book of Mountains and Seas "is that the calendar segments of the sky, marked as" mountains"," seas "and" deserts", distributed in it in 18 juanami scrolls, are oriented to the cardinal directions. Thus, the sections of the first five juans, usually called the "Book of Mountains": "Southern", "Western", "Northern", "Eastern" and "Central" mountains correspond to the seasons, and all together-to the year, the 12-year cycle of Jupiter (zhou), and the 60-year calendar the Chia-tzu cycle (i.e., the five-fold zhou), and the priestly yuan cycle and its periods. The " mountains "are spatially oriented relative to the" five palaces " of the Chinese firmament.

The same applies to the section "Seas", which are distinguished as "External Seas" and "Internal Seas" (meaning calendar periods included in the Zhou cycle or outside the time limits of the Zhou cycle), and to "Deserts". These sections of the monument are called similarly: "Southern", "Western", "Northern" and "Eastern" seas and deserts. The astronomical content of the" Book of Mountains and Seas "mainly reflects the information of the" Book of Stars "(Xing Jing) and Sima Qian's treatise "Book of Observations of the Firmament" (Tian Guan shu), which describes the "five palaces" of the firmament: "Southern" (Nan-gong), "Western" (Si-gong), "Northern "(Bei-gong)," Eastern "(Dong-gong), and" Central Palace "(Zhong-gong), respectively, which describe the celestial spaces in all sections of the"Book of Mountains and Seas". But spaces, whether they are "mountains" or" seas", cannot be fully identified with the heavenly" palaces"by the names given in the chapters ("Southern Palace" - "Southern Mountains"), although the latter are the basic ones for all sections. Since the firmament is described according to the positions of the planets, which may be "correct" or "incorrect" in the event that a planet loses its degree positions, it may end up in another "palace of heaven". In accordance with the length of the season, each section of the "Book of Mountains" is divided into subsections - three or four parts corresponding to the months that make up the time of year.

Most researchers emphasize the special antiquity of the "Book of Mountains and Seas". It is also believed that its 18 juanei sections were created in different periods. This point of view was expressed by Prof. Yuan Ke in the book "Myths of Ancient China". He attributed the first five Juans to the eighth and seventh centuries B.C., the "Four Books of the Outer Seas" to the fifth and Third centuries B.C., the "Four Books of the Inner Seas" to the end of the third and second centuries B.C., the "Four Books of the Great Deserts" and "The book" The Inner Sea "" - by the end of the third century BC - the beginning of the first century [Yuan Ke, 1987, p. 257]. (The "Inner Sea" or "Inside the Seas" is a metaphor for all of China, here for all the years of the Great Year calendar cycle.) But this concept seems untenable just because the calendar is always a single whole. Yuan Ke's thesis was objected to by those Chinese scholars who emphasized the rigid structure of the monument, each section of which describes objects in different parts of the world (Shanhai jing..., 1999). The dispute arose because of an inaccurate idea of what exactly Liu Xiu did: collected the calendar books that were available at his time into a single corpus, or re-wrote the text with his group of astrologers-astrologers. Ancient commentators say that Liu Xiu collected a new corpus of texts from existing ones. Bi Yuan (18th century), for example, believed that even Guo Pu could not see these ancient versions, believing that the " original texts "are images on the" nine Yu tripods " that have been lost. The above-mentioned fragment of a bronze vessel with animal zodiacs could be a variant of the astronomical calendar imprinted in bronze for all ages, "nine Yu tripods" - a figurative metaphor that captures a special direction in the culture of ancient China: the manufacture of bronze vessels with calendar symbols inscribed on them [Shanhai jing..., 1936. Forewords, pp. 3-7].

We will offer the reader a different concept of the Book of Mountains and Seas as a hypothesis, based on the explanation of the text that Liu Xiu made in the "Report on the Book of Mountains and Seas". Liu Xiu notes that the Book of Mountains and Seas originally had 32 scrolls-juan, "now I have made it in 18 juan." He explains the principles of the "Book of Mountains and Seas" and the foundations of the astrological ideology laid down in it in terms of the astronomical science of his time: "Yu took four time-bearing objects (tsai), cut down "trees" according to the "mountains", defined "high mountains" and "great rivers"... [In accordance with them], he gave the functions of Sky commands (ming) to "mountains" and "rivers", gave different names-" names "to " grass" and "tree", pointed out the differences between " water "[Mercury] and "soil" [Saturn]" [Shanhai jing, 1990, p. 104]. In the dictionary

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"Erya" explains that under the word tsai (lit. "carry") meant the object by which time was determined, it was Jupiter - the "Star of the Year". But sometimes it was called the calendar year itself (nyan). At the same time," one year "could be called one 12-year cycle of Jupiter, since this is the period during which the planet "circumnavigates the entire sky", i.e. 12 earth years were considered as a "year" in the life of Jupiter, and 500 earth years were considered as one "inspection tour of the heavens" by the same Jupiter [Erya..., 1999, p. 169]. The "four time-bearing objects" are the Sun, Moon, Jupiter, and the constellation Bay Dou, which usually replaces Anti-Jupiter in its positions in the firmament. "Grass" and "tree" - Anti-Jupiter and Jupiter, whose "different names" showed that they are different in their positions in the firmament of Jupiter and Anti-Jupiter. "Mountains" and" rivers " are terms that denote calendar spaces and their boundaries.

It is clear from Liu Xiu's report that the calendar cycle of the Great or Big Year (Da Bei), which is a binary structure of the yin-yang type and thus consists of doubled "three periods, each of which has three small cycles", finds a correspondence in the number of chapters of the Book of Mountains and Seas. Recall that the 18 juans of the Book of Mountains and Seas consist of 4 juans called "Mountains" in accordance with the cardinal directions, 1 Juan -" Mountains of the center", of 8 Juans called "Seas", while 4 of them are "Outer Seas" and 4 Juan - " Inner Seas", of 4 juans called "Great Deserts" and one final juan "Inland Sea". Numerical ratios of chapters: 4+1 ("mountains"), 8 ("seas"), 4+1 ("deserts" and "sea"). In the structure of chapters, the principle of yin-yang duality is clearly traced: "mountains" → "seas";" desert lands " → "seas". "Sea" is the element of water, i.e. yin, "mountains" respectively-yang, the embodiment of the masculine principle of the world.

Liu Xiu suggests that the reader should see some mathematical basis in this structure. He writes: "[Yu], noting the four Peaks [symbol of the time of year] along the course of the planet Tai-sui ("Solar Year") going to the left, made up the calendar cycle of Zhou, designating it as "four squares" (si fan), thereby marking the expected appearance of Tai-sui, which hurries along in the footsteps of a Man [1. Bei Dou], who guides her like a ship's stern. Within the [zhou cycle], he also identified the "Central Mountains", designating them as the "fifth square" [or "five squares"]. Outside of the cyclehe identified "eight squares" of "seas" to show by the radiance of the zodiacs that the precious stones are exactly scattered in the firmament, by their amazing images born on the basis of the variables of the cycle, and with the help of [the four planets] - namely, Mercury - the planet of the "element of water", Saturn - the planet of the "element of water". the elements of the soil, as well as with the help of "Grass" and "Wood", which are included in the images [of the zodiacs in the form of] "birds", "animals", "worms", "Qilin" and "Phoenix", determine their place [in space], because they are fraught with good or evil. Outside of the [ cycle],counted as the "four seas", he inscribed "realms" (go) with the border towns and all the variety of its "people". Yu identified the differences between the " nine lands-regions "(ju zhou), creating the "Book of Mountains and Seas" "[Shanhai jing..., 1999, p. 104, 146].

From the report of Liu Xiu ["Shanhai Jing"..., 1936, pp. 6-9], it follows that the calendar cycle, painted according to the chapters of the "Book of Mountains and Seas", consists of two periods called zhou, "small" and "large", which are calculated as the area of space in square terms and as time - by year. The key word of the quote is " square "(fan), the word also means" side", here it has a mathematical meaning, like the side of a square and a square, i.e. the side raised to a power. "Four squares" - respectively 4 2. "Mountain" - a symbol of the zodiac space, can be perceived as an image of the measuring triangle A or as a trigram =, the same image, but with a horizontal-vertical recording of the sides of the triangle. In the " Book of Changes "(I Ching), two trigrams make up a hexagram, that is, two trigrams - two triangles make up a hexagram-square. The hexagram no longer corresponds to a linear measure, but to the area of the measured space. Hence, if the calendar cycle of the year was defined by Liu Xiu as "four squares", i.e. 4 2 (or 2 4, or 16), plus the "fifth square", i.e. 2 5, then we have the traditional Zhou calendar cycle, whose symbolic number is 32. This is the first half of a large calendar cycle, corresponding to the 32 hexagrams of the Book of Changes. Zhou Liu Xiu also refers to the "four inner seas"as a complete cycle. The words "four mountains" or" eight seas " indicate the modeling number used to calculate the space of a given segment of the Great Year. The symbolic number of all eight" seas " is 128 (16 x 8). And then each section of the "Book of Mountains and Seas", from the 1st to the 18th yuan, should have correspondences between the amount of time and the corresponding areas of the firmament space as a series of numbers: 1 2, 2 2, 3 2, 4 2... 18 2.

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It is possible that the last number 18 2 also assumed the value 2 18 and was conceived in the "Book of Mountains and Seas" as a numerical image of the Great Year, especially since the "Book of Changes" has a similar principle of counting the calendar cycle from 2 1 to 2 64, because "64 squares" corresponding to 64 hexagrams are thought of. But if we take into account that the "Book of Mountains and Seas" is a topography of the celestial sphere, describing celestial objects and their changes, which carry certain meanings according to the ideology of the rite, then its text should be more close to real time. In the end, for people who live in real time, it is not so important, although it is very interesting, when there will be an image in heaven-a sign corresponding to the calendar number 2 18 or even 2 64, as if now the end of the world is being discussed in society. Given that the text uses special techniques that were called "the art of [writing] numbers", we propose another version of calculating calendar time in the "Book of Mountains and Seas", based on one source space of the sky, because the star information of its sections-chapters is almost not repeated and is described only once.

So, the chapters of the monument are marked as 4 + 1 → 8 → 4 + 1. Two identical parts show that the second part corresponds to the first as "1 to 8". Regarding the content of the first part, which we have designated by the number of juans as "4 + 1", Liu Xiu says that it is "four squares and five more squares". (The expression wu fan allows you to read both "fifth square" and "five squares"). From the first variant of reading, we get either a sequential progression of bases of square degrees (4 2, 5 2), or a progression of the degrees themselves with one given base (2 4, 2 5). From the second version of the reading of the formula "four squares and five more", it also follows that we mean "nine squares", i.e. the scheme "Loshu" - a square of 9 cells called "The Book of Lo Rivers" ("The Water Boundary Calendar Book of Space and Time"), usually attached to the "Book of Changes". According to mythology ,the "horse" - the symbol of Tai-sui (Anti-Jupiter) - came out of the waters and showed people this scheme on its rump, but instead of numbers for the uninformed, trigrams were written out marking the stars of the" Central Palace " of the firmament. Liu Xiu refers the uninitiated in the mysteries of astrology to the square "Loshu". Its side is usually equal to three cells, the numeric symbol is 9. This is the original model of the calendar cycle laid down in the"Book of Mountains and Seas". The square "Loshu", which has the numeric symbol 9, Liu Xiu suggests to "measure", resulting in another square that embodies the idea of the "great calendar cycle of Zhou".

The Erya dictionary explains what is meant by "four seas" and "four deserts": "What counts as "four seas" is contained in the following three phrases: "eight Man tribes in the south", "six Rong tribes in the west", "five Di tribes in the north" [Erya..., 1999, p. 200]. (In this context, the words man, di are not names of tribes, but the conventional names of the corresponding segments of the calendar cycle, which are like a poetic metaphor for the distance of spaces - a kind of "darkness and darkness".) The east is not named here, so Guo Pu offers another explanation, adding "nine tribes and", and thus in the explanation "four tribes" are already mentioned in the "four seas", and it is indicated how many genera there were in this tribe: "nine genera of the yi tribe, eight - man, six-rong, five genera of the di tribes" [Erya..., 1999, p. 199]. The key to explaining the meaning of this expression may be the scheme "Nine limits of the Zhou calendar spaces visually contemplated by astrologer officials" (Zhou guan jiu ji yan tu). It is a square in which squares with smaller sides are inscribed, like a well. Each of the drawn squares has a name and a conditional number: 1st - "kingdom of Wang", its side-500; 2nd - "princes", side-500 x 2; 3rd - xun (lit. "decade"), side-500 x 4 (or 2 2); 4th-nan (lit. "male"), side 500 x 8 (or 2 3); 5th-tsai (lit. "material"), side-500 x 16 (or 2 4); 6th - wei (lit. "unfathomable"), side-500 x 32 (or 2 5); 7th - [tribe] man, side-500 x 64 (or 2 6); 8th - [tribe] yi, side-500 x 64 * 2 (or 2 7); 9th - fan ("barrier"), its side is 500 x 64 * 4 [or 2 8]". Regarding this map, Guo Mogo remarked that it cannot, as is sometimes believed, be a map of the borders of the Kingdom of Zhou: "the Kingdom of Zhou did not have such vast lands", nor did the names of some tribes at that time [quoted from Ye Shuxian, Su Bing, Zhen Zaishu, 2004, p. 78]. In our opinion, this is a diagram of the calendar cycle of the Great Year, mathematically grown as squares of squares. There are a total of nine squares in the diagram. In the "Book of Mountains and Seas" there are only four squares with sides 3, 5, 7, 9; if the side of the 1st square is 3, then the side of the 9th in the "Nine Limits" scheme is 19).

Based on the names of the tribes listed above and the numbers indicating their number, you can calculate these numbers for specifying a square using the formula "4-1", hence "8 Man tribes" by

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"Erya" is the 7th square in the "Nine Limits" scheme, "9 Tribes and" is the 8th square. If the number 2 5 in the" Book of Mountains and Seas "ends with "mountains", then 2 6 and the rest of the numbers are "seas" and "deserts", named as"tribal lands". In the " Book of Mountains and Seas "in the 6th quan "Outer Seas", "5 di tribes" are mentioned, their space corresponds to the 4th square "Loshu" according to the formula "4 - 1". Thus, the ordinal number of the yuan could be oriented to the corresponding square "Loshu".

As the value of the side of the 1st square for calculating the cycle in the scheme "Nine limits of spaces", the number 500 is taken. Then the 9th square - "nine families of the Yi tribe" will correspond to the number 50,000, and the square "6 families of the Rong tribe" - 35,000; "5 families of the Di tribe" - 30,000. If we assume that 1000 conventional units of space correspond to 1°, then the supposed "tribes " or" seas " marking the places where remote tribes live are located in the space lying between 50° and 30°. On the map, it is located on both sides of the equator: +50°; +29° and - 50°; - 25°. This is the space of "seas". Four "deserts"in the scheme described above are included only in one fan square ("Barrier"). The dictionary "Erya" explains this space as follows:" Outside the" Nine lands-regions "lie the Fan kingdoms, they can be covered at a glance" [Erya..., 1999, p.200]. We are talking about the stars of the" Central Palace "of the firmament, called the "Purple Palace Wall". The "wall" consists of the" Eastern Barrier "of Dong Fan and the" Western Barrier " of Si Fan. These are the "Deserts of the World". Thus, if " mountains "describe spaces in terms of latitude, then" seas " - in terms of longitude. The title of the Great Year calendar - "Book of Mountains and Seas" - can be interpreted as "Calendar Path of the Tao in latitude and longitude".

The compilers of the Book of Mountains and Seas used already established cultural codes that combine the world of nature and space with the world of man to create a panoramic view of the sky, giving it the appearance of an earthly landscape. The Book of Mountains and Seas mentions 5,370 mountains, names more than 40 kingdoms, 74 animal species, and 129 diseases. 74 zodiac animal species can correspond to 24 positions of Jupiter and 24 positions of Anti-Jupiter, while Jupiter can still go astray from its intended positions 24 times. All these cases can be recorded using images of zodiac animals. Similarly, 129 diseases can be a metaphor for 129 instances of the five planets 'misbehavior' when they veer off course.

At this stage of studying the monument, the problem of the correlation of all the mentioned herbs, trees, diseases, metals, natural stones, etc.with the units of the calendar cycle has not yet been raised by anyone. About the meaning and place of the "Book of Mountains and Seas" in the culture of ancient China, one of its commentators said through the mouth of its mythological author-Emperor Yu: "For the capable, this book has an abundance of meaning, for the stupid - no meaning. The Feng sacrifices for the Great Tai-sui Mountain, the Shan sacrifices for our ancestor and father are offered by 72 families. The numbers of gains and losses are hidden in it. This book is for a state purpose" [Shanhai jing..., 1999, p. 21]. This quote seems to be a late interpolation, it is missing from the 1936 and 1988 editions, and was inserted in the text most likely to clarify the meaning of the Book of Mountains and Seas.

Since the usual philological translation of a monument that uses terms and symbols leads to absurdity, the translator suggests, without violating the figurative symbolism of the text, to supplement the information with semantic equivalents of key terms and symbols, for example: "grass" - Anti-Jupiter, "tree" - Jupiter, "gold" - west, etc. The "Book of Mountains and Seas" uses the same description structure to characterize the time-space of a conditional mountain or sea, which includes the following items:: location and name of the site; presence of Anti-Jupiter ("grass") or Jupiter ("tree"); offering of sacrifices to" tree "and" grass"; presence of other planets; zodiac" images "and their" names"; offering of sacrifices to the deity of the zodiac; zodiac" border waters"; seasonal ritual action; sign of the zodiac"image".

Like the calendar topography of the firmament, the" Book of Mountains and Seas " by planets and stars records the year, time of year, month and its two seasons and weeks. It also marks the years of the 60-year Zhou cycle, the periods of the 7-year yuan cycle, and the periods of 19 years when the celestial situation of any time-space is replicated. At the same time, the "Book of Mountains and Seas" indicates the years of the cycle of Jupiter's revolution around the Sun according to the zodiac zones, recording in the chosen space all possible situations that should be expected on it (the appearance of other planets, time-space zodiacs of different magnitudes, cases of deviation of planets from a given course, sunrises and sunsets of the Sun and Moon, etc.), since the "Book of Mountains and Seas" is primarily a description of the heavens-

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It is designed to anticipate the evil omens revealed by the heavens. Hence, a certain place in it is given to instructions on when to make a sacrificial offering to the deities and spirits of the stars and what is the procedure of the sacrificial action. The latter brings the Book of Mountains and Seas closer to the ancient astrologies of the East and West, which sometimes shrouded the hidden meanings of their predictions in a fog of secret ciphers and an elusive code for the uninitiated.

As a sample text, the reader is offered two fragments of the monument: "Southern Mountains "(in three books) and"South Sea". The first step in establishing the true content of the "Book of Mountains and Seas" should be to refer to ancient Chinese astronomy, for which a Chinese map of the starry sky is attached to the text of the article. It is very productive to compare the text with the Chinese traditional calendar, which is present as a system in the monument. For example, the Southern Mountains section describes 41 mountains. If you calculate how many calendar dates fall on the time of year in the Chinese traditional calendar, it turns out that in addition to the dates of nine decades, three months and their six seasons, as well as 15 years, which are recorded as the dates of the 60-year cycle, plus six positions of the planets when counting the years of the Jupiter cycle, plus three Jupiter from the given course, then it turns out that these are the very mountains, number 41, which are described in the section "Southern Mountains". In the "Book of Mountains and Seas", this information is revealed in the names of real constellations and sections of the sky, in the names of seasons and years of the calendar and cycles of Jupiter.

"The Book of Mountains and Seas" is imbued with the ideology and practice of the rite, aimed at preserving stability both in nature and in the state. The ancient Chinese constantly peered into the sky, but since the sky is open to all, the study of astronomy for reasons of state security was banned almost until the XIII century. and to preserve the secrets contained in calendar books and astrological treatises, a number of intricate techniques were used: phonetic substitution of hieroglyphs, the use of any one part Chinese researchers, apparently having a special reverence for the hieroglyph, for some reason excluded the possibility of using such techniques by ancient astronomers, such as adding a semantically significant part (for example, a cyclic sign) to the name of a plant or mountain, the name of a mythological character,etc. this made it impossible to qualify the monument as a "shamanic book" - a "book of priests", as Lu Xin pointed out, based only on the oddities of the Chinese language in the monument. The inaccurate cultural characterization of the monument precluded the possibility of the Book of Mountains and Seas approaching the Book of Changes, although the latter's hexagrams are inscribed as calendar milestones in the topographical images and symbols of the Book of Mountains and Seas.

THE BOOK OF MOUNTAINS AND SEAS

Southern mountains. The first book

[§ 1] In the "First Book of the Southern Mountains", the head section of the Southern Mountains begins with Qiaoshan ("Magpie Ridge"), namely with its initial mountain Zhaoyao ("Wavering")1, YY 19 Lin [comp. Xian] lies close (Lin) and aboveSihai("Western Sea")2, whose coordinates are: "a lot of cinnamon wood - a lot of gold and jade" [<url>. Kui ("Skipter") - in the fifth square of latitude to the west of the star Zhaoyao]3. There is a "grass" [Anti-Jupiter] that looks like a sweet onion. This is the "Star of Fu-xing" or "Radiance of the East", which is here calledZhu-yu("Excess of the years of Zhu"). Feed the" grass " of the victims, so as not to starve4. There is a "tree" - Jupiter, which looks like an ear(gu)with black veins, radiates radiance on all sides, here it is called -gu("Lost in the loaves"). When the situation of "Lost in the loaves" [Jupiter] arises, his deity is revered so that he does not get lost5 Zodiac image-animal: looks like a monkey with white ears [image before the zodiac zone under

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the sign of Shen, whose symbol is a monkey, where the 102nd year of the Jupiter cycle is marked (on the map - the meridian 2h-0h)]. It is calledsip-sip("Double star")6. The "Star of Fu" ["Star of Fu-xing", Anti-Jupiter] marches like a Man [Bei Dou] 7. They nourish the deity so that it can manifest its virtues in constant motion. The watersof("Beautiful Stream") [GY 30 Li]flow out from here, flow west, and then fall into the "[West] Sea"8. In the middle of the plot isYu-pei9[if in the second decade the planet goes into the vast "water" expanses from YY16Yu-pei. Lei Zhen ("Thunder and Lightning") to the end. Tienshi ("Sky Market")],it is shown signs of respect, so that the planet does not speed up in movement, because then pestilence occurs10.

[§ 2] 300 li to the east is Mount Dantin [or Chantin]11("Hall of Permanent Correspondences of planetary positions"). Location: "many -many white monkeys; many water jade - many yellow gold" [planets are: Anti-Jupiter in the southeast under the sign of Mao, Jupiter through the five zodiac zones in the direction of northwest-west (NWW)] 12.

[§ 3] Another 380 li to the east is Mount Yuanyi ("Monkey Wings")13 - [phone number. Xuanyuan], whose coordinates are: "there are many devil animals in the middle, many devil fish in the water, many white jade, ,devil snakes, and many more devil trees"14. Above this mountain [the planet] does not rise.

[§ 4] Another 370 li to the east is Mount Niu-yang ("The constellation Bei Dou is the second star of the Handle of Biao and Ladle"), whose coordinates are: "there is a lot of red gold on the southern [ecliptic], white gold on the northern [ecliptic]" 15. The zodiac image is an animal: according to the outline - horse 16 with a white head, color like a tiger, red tail, called "Deer of Shu". Its neighing sound is similar to divination. They show him respect, asking that his sons and grandsons not be transferred. This is where the waters of Guai ("Devil's Waters")originate (see below. Gui), the koi, heading east, flow into the Xianyi ("Wing" that is in Xian " 41) [- YY 31 Xian, 31st year of the calendar]. Location: "there are a lot of 17 yuan black turtles in the middle ." Gui ("Turtle") 44]. Image of the constellation Gui-a creature similar in appearance to an ordinary turtle, but the head of a bird, and the tail of a boa constrictor [when at the beginning of the cycle the Bucket is in the south-it is in the "Red Bird" configuration, at the end of the cycle-the handle of the Biao is turned to the square of Jiushe ("Huge Snake")]. Nicknamed "Black Turtle xuangui" ["Constellation Turtle and Star Xuan" - the 2nd star of the Bay Dou Dipper]. Makes a sound like cutting down a tree 18. They honor [the planet] so that it is not deaf, because [following Jupiter] may go down to the constellation Di ("Base")19.

[§ 5] [When Anti-Jupiter departs] another 300 li to the east, Jupiter may be in the constellation Di20. Location: "lots of water"21 [north where Mercury is located], no "grass" or "tree". The zodiac image of the site is a fish: it is similar in shape to a bull that lives on land, it has the constellation I ("Wing") on the tail of a snake, and the feathers of its wings lie below the fins. Fish lu ["dry land"]. [Fish plot space]: makes a long sound-the roar of a bull left in the field [through 120°-the 9th zodiac constellation Nu ("Bull")[The Anti-Jupiter cycle] dies with the onset of winter, and is reborn by summer23. Feed [the planet] so that it does not grow overgrown with growths [unnecessary parking of the planet does not happen].

6] Another 400 li from the point to the east - Tanyuan ("Moved sacrificial platform for offerings").[§ Location: "lots of water, no 'grass' or 'tree '" [Mercury present, no Jupiter or Anti-Jupiter]. [Planets] they can't go any higher. Zodiac image - an animal that looks like a wild cat with long hair. Called Lei. Lay-female and male at the same time 24. It is nourished to protect from the jealousy of wives.

[§ 7] Another 300 li from the east - Mount Ji ("Shopping cart"), its coordinates: "there's a lot of jade on the south side, and a lot of devil trees on the north side."25. Zodiac image - an animal, shaped like a ram with nine tails and four ears, eyes-on

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on the back. Called bochy. He is shown favor by wearing amulets so that Jupiter will not be afraid.26 The zodiac image is a bird 27, shaped like a rooster with three heads, six eyes, six legs, and three wings. Called changfu. They offer her sacrifices so that she doesn't fall asleep.

[§ 8] Another 300 li to the east [of the city. Ji] - Qingqiu ("Green Hill"), whose coordinates are: "in the south -' a lot of jade '[the fifth square in longitude], in the north - 'a lot of green hu' "[in the latitude of 'fox' - the third. Blue]28. The zodiac image is an animal that looks like a fox with nine tails, and its voice-sound is similar to the crying of a baby. Qingqiu to the east through 9 zodiac zones-<url>. Wei "Tail", to the west through the three zodiac zones-the space under the sign of Zi]. You can also offer sacrifices to a Person. Bay Dou]. The [planet] that is being fed does not occupy the position YY 18 Yy 30. Zodiac image-bird 31 [- Venus, Guan-xing ("All-seeing star")], shaped like a dove, utters the cry "ke-ke", is called by the name Guang-guan ["name" GG 20 Guan]. The man [Bei Dou] doesn't give in to her seduction. The waters of the Ying [Venus route] originate here, and from here they flow south to Yijie ("Da-je [-Venus] in the north. I") 32. In the middle there is a lot of red fish zhu 33. Red fish zhu is similar in shape to an ordinary fish, but with a snout like a face A human, her voice is a cry like that of yuanyang lovebirds. They offer sacrifices, asking to get rid of the scabies itch.

[§ 9] Another 300 li to the east are the constellation mountains that lie between Ji ("Basket") and Wei ("Tail"). This configuration goes as far as Donghai ("East Sea"). Location: "lots of sand and stone". Waters("Square") [marked by default. Fang - "Home"] flows from here to the south, flowing into the Yu [Tianshi ("Heavenly Market")], in the middle of which "a lot of white jade"34.

[§ 10] In total, in the "Magpie Ridge" that starts from the star Zhaoyao ("Wavering"), in the space between the constellations Ji ("Basket") and Wei ("Tail"), there are ten mountains-constellations, which cover 2950 li. The spirits of their zodiacs have bird bodies and dragon heads 35 [the zodiacs start in the "Eastern Palace", whose symbol is "dragon", and lie in the "Southern Palace", whose symbol is "bird"]. They offer sacrifices-they take birds of the same color and, together with a jade rod, bring them to the deity of the "Great Shadow" - Jupiter, burying them in the ground. Glutinous rice, one jade disk, and unbroken rice are sacrificed, placing the victims on a mat of white wheatgrass 36.

Southern mountains. Second book

[§ 1] In the "Second Book 37 of the Southern Mountains", the Qiushan [square of Qiuxe ("Huge Crab")], (lin), is considered be the starting point [YY19Lin] Liuhuang ("Flowing stream of the Sun") [ecliptic]; in the north, it facesZhuo-bi38 [Zhuo-yun-the space under the 5th cyclic sign of y according to the system of "celestial veshek" - Jupiter and "Earth GG 8 Bi"], in the east it looks at Changshe ("Long Tongue") [text. Taiwei ("The Great Unfathomable") or Quanshe ("Rolled tongue")]. Yingshui Waters[Path of Mars in Yingxian Square ("Ying Deity") in the south-west, they flow down toChishui39("Red Waters"), whose coordinates are:" a lot of white jade, red cinnabar grains "[to the west, a section of five squares in longitude, where" virginity was lost " is unknown. Qian-niu ("Bullock") and Zhi-nu ("Weaver")]. Zodiac image-animal: in appearance like Qiusho, but in the opposite position, its @voice-sound-like a dog cracking [two squares in longitude from Qiusho - another square of Qiusho with the sun. Tiangou ("Sky Dog", 8h-9h; -20°-40°)]. The animalLily("the power of the leopard") [square Huli ("The Fox and the Leopard")]. When the image is visible in the sky, earthworks begin in the counties. Zodiac image-bird , by type

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like an owl [symbolic image of the southern quarter - "Red Bird" (Zhu-niao)], but on the paws - ten fingers, like on a human hand [Anti-Jupiter position in the 10th zodiac zone, Jupiter under the sign of y]. Bey-bey chirps like a quail [GG 2 Kun, determining the position of Jupiter (the word bey is inscribed with the sign "vile", an epithet of the hexagram)] and is called "red quail" [quail under the sign of wu]. Her name speaks for itself [Chun-ho precinct:]. Liu, Zhang, and Chi-xing]. In counties where the image of the red bird [-Zhu-nyao, symbolic image of the south] is clearly visible in the sky, scholars are dismissed from the service.

[§ 2] 450 li to the east 41-Changshe ("Long Tongue") [2. Tai-wei ("The Great Unfathomable")]. There is no "grass", no "tree" [there are no corresponding Anti-Jupiter and Jupiter trails]. Location: "a lot of water" [Mercury is present - "water"]. Zodiac image-an animal that looks like a monkeyYuwith four ears [YY 42 Yu-42nd year Duan-meng Da-huang-lo], changshe,makes sounds similar to commands. When the image is visible in the sky, there is bound to be a big flood in the regions.

[§ 3] Another 340 li to the east is Yaoguang zhishan (Emperor Yao's Radiance Mountain) 42 [head star]. Wu-zhu-hou ("The Five Princes")Location: "lots of jade on the south side, lots of gold on the north side." The image of the zodiac symbol-an animal, like a man with the bristles of a boar 43, is called khushuai [Venus under the name Dashuai ("Great Decline")[In summer] it stays where Anti-Jupiter is-on earth. Liu, in winter - in the "Crab" square. Its sound-a growl - is like chopping down a tree. [The "Crab" square is at the same latitude as above. Jian ("Setting")]. The image appears in areas where duties are exorbitant.

[§ 4] Another 350 li to the east - Yushan-letters.("Mountain-Feathers" - "The Fifth Mountain") 44, "under it-water, above it - rain"; there is no "tree" or" grass "[the Jupiter and Anti-Jupiter routes do not pass], "many snakes fu and worms" [space GG 24 Fu].

[§ 5] Another 370 li to the east is Qufu zhishan ("Qufu Mountain" or "Qu's father's Mountain"). There is no "tree" or "grass"here. There is "much gold and jade" [to the west of the fifth square] 45.

6] Another 400 li to the east - Juyu zhishan (Mount "Unspoken Phrase")46[§ [YY 58 Dui-Venus]. There is no "grass" or "tree"here. There's "a lot of gold and jade" [west through the five zodiac zones].

[§ 7] Another 500 li to the east is Fuyu zhishan 47 (Mount Yu-heng - "Jade yardstick "floating in the middle of the firmament"). In the north, it facesJiuqu -" The place[GG 61 Fu] under the signtse,the east-to Zhobi ["The Land of GG 8 Bi"]. Zodiac image-an animal that looks like a tiger with a bull's tail48. It makes a sound similar to a dog barking. Called ("boar")49. When the image is visible, nourish the image of a Person. The watersZhao,from which the Shadow [Jupiter] emerges, flow northward into theJiuqu("Place under the 6th Signtse"). There's "a lot of ." [YY 61 Fu-marked by the position of the Yu-heng star in the month of "boar" under the sign hai; the word yu ("fish") is a homonym of the word yu ("Yu-heng star")].

8] Another 500 li to the east- Chengshan (Mount Perfection)[§ []. Bei Dou] 50, it looks like a square, and it has three altars-altars (tan). Its location: "above , there is a lot of gold and jade [in latitude: from the west-through the five zodiac zones], below-a lot of cinnabarhu." Qingqiu ("Green Hill"), whose symbol is hu (fox)]. This is where the waters of Zhu originate ["boundary waters" of the 12th year of Jupiter, which are marked by default. Fan ("House"), whose symbol is zhu ("pig")]. The Zhu watersflow south and flow intoHushao("Hu Dipper"). [click here. Gui "Turtle"]. Its coordinates are "a lot of yellow gold" [southwest].

[§ 9] Another 500 li to the east is Mount Guiji52 ("Haystack"). It is square. Location: "there is a lot of gold and jade at the top [by latitude: through 5 zodiacal points

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[from the point of the west], there are many at the bottom " [in longitude - at the level of the square Yu-fu ("Jade Father")]. From here the waters of the , and in the south they flow into the waters of the Chou53("Stinking Waters") [11th zodiac zone Xu].

10] Another 500 li to the east is Mount Kua - [[§fu] 54.There is no "tree" or "grass", there is "a lot of sand and stone". The Siuflow out from here, heading south, they flow intoLeta,or Muddy Fields Ridge.

[§ 11] Another 500 li to the east - Pugoushan (Hook and Servant Mountain)55. Location: "much gold and jade" [west through the five zodiac zones]. Under it - "a lot of grass and trees". There is no [zodiac] in the form of an animal or in the form of a bird. There are "no water flows" [no zodiac zone boundaries].

56 12] Another 500 li to the east - Xianyin zhishan (mount "Xian under the sign of the element Yin")[§.There is no "grass", "tree", no water flows.

[§ 13] Another 400 li to the east - Xiongshan 57 (Mount "Decadent"), its coordinates: "on the south [ecliptic] there is a lot of gold [located in the west], on the north-a lot of jade" [on the fifth parallel]. The zodiac image is an animal: it looks like a ram, but without a mouth, it cannot be killed. Called . The ""flow out from here and, running down to the south, flow into Lake Yan58 [31st year of the Yan-feng Dun-tsang calendar, YY 31 Xian], where there are "many in the middle [Jupiter accelerates in the area].

14] Another 400 li to the east is Hushaoshan59 ("The mountain called Spoon"),[§coordinates: "above it are many catalpa - [or a tree under the sign of xin and a tree under the sign of chou]. Below it is a plot of Jing land and a plot of Xing-ji. The waters of Pan60originate from here. Fan ("Home")]. They flow to the east and flow into the Sea.

[§ 15] Another 500 li to the east is Qu Wu zhishan61 ("Mountain of the local kingdom of Wu"). There is no "grass" or "tree"here. Coordinates: "lots of sand and rock". WatersLu("Deer") they flow out from here and, flowing down to the south, fall into the watersPan. Fan].

16] Another 500 li to the east is Lu-Wu-zhishan (mount "Deer 62 of the Kingdom of Wu"). There is no "grass" or "tree" above it. There is "a lot of gold and stones." The waters of the "Lake" under the 3rd sign of bin and under the 3rd sign of yin originate here. The "lake" waters (16h) flow to the south and flow into the Pan waters. Fan]. There is an animal in the "water": it looks like an eagle, but it has horns. Jue ("Horn")]. It is called gudiao - "the eagle that eats poison-plants"[§ [YY 18 Gu and the Xin star]. It makes a sound similar to a baby's cry. When the image is visible in the firmament, they nourish the soul of a Person.

[§ 17] Another 500 li to the east is Qi Wu ("The Black Kingdom of Wu" or "the Kingdom of Wu in the north"). 63 There is no "grass" or "tree"there. Coordinates: "lots of fu stone [Yufu square], no jade." The constellation faces Qingqiu ("Green Hill") [lies on the same parallel]. Its radiance flashes when it appears, and goes out when it leaves. This is the second constellation for the planet Tai-sui ("Solar Year") [2]. Gan ("Neck")].

18] In total, in the "Second Book 64" Southern Mountains "" from the Qiushan square [§ [or]. Liu ("Willow")] to Qi Wu Mountain ("Black Northern Wu Kingdom")65-17 mountains, koi located at a distance of 7200 li. Their spirits have dragon bodies and bird heads 66. For sacrifices, they take birds of the same color and, together with a jade rod, bring them to the Great Shadow, burying gifts in the ground.

Southern mountains. The third book

[§ 1] In the "Third Book of the Southern Mountains", the initial mountain is considered to be Tianyu ("Heavenly Emperor Yu") 67, whose coordinates are: "there is a lot of water below". Planets do not rise higher than Tianyu.

[§ 2] Another 500 li to the east is Tao-guo shan 68 ("The mountain where prayers and offerings are made for wrongdoings"), whose coordinates are: "above it is a lot of gold and jade, under it - a lot of buffaloes, rhinos, elephants." Zodiac Image -

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bird 69, similar to a jiao egret, with a white head, three legs, and the face of a man. It is called quzhu ("Similar to a protractor"). Her name speaks for itself. The waters of Yin70 originate from here, heading south, they drain into the "sea". Coordinates: the middle is where the tigers and dragons are located. Gan ("Neck") - yin zone, whose symbol is "tiger"]. Jiao dragons havebody of a fish, the tail of a . Gan, whose symbol is "dragon jiao", lies in the space of the" sea", the end of the zodiac-at the end of the zone under the sign of si, whose symbol is" snake"] - the year of yi-si, the year 42nd or 52nd year of yi-mao. They make sounds like quacking . [The planet] makes sacrifices to get rid of tumorous growths and hemorrhoids, which usually appear in the sixth month under the signsi72.

[§ 3] Another 300 li to the east - Danxue zhishan ("Cinnabar Cave Mountain") [click here. Tianshi ("Sky Market")], whose coordinates are: "there is a lot of gold and jade above it" [through 5 zodiac zones to the west]. The watersDan73 ("Cinnabar") flow from here and, heading south, flow into"Bohai Sea"[Donghai Star- "East Sea"]. Zodiac image-bird that looks like a rooster74, five colors, with a . It's calledfenghuangPhoenix. It has the word "virtue" written on its head, "duty" on its wings, "ritual" on its back, "humanity" on its shoulders, and "trust"on its breast. The Phoenix bird is offered the usual sacrifices, songs are played and dances are arranged. When the "Cinnabar Cave Mountain" is visible in the sky, peace reigns in the Middle Kingdom.

[§ 4] Another 400 li to the east is Fashuang zhishan75(a mountain that "emits light but does not travel"). There is no "grass" and "tree". Location 76: "lots of water, lots of white monkeys." From here, the watersFan("Ordinary") flow out. Running south, they flow intoBohai River.

[§ 5] Another 400 li to the east - Maoshanzhivei 77 (mount "Feather bunchuk at the end with a yak tail") [space from the map. Mao ("Duck's Nest") to the end. Nude ("Bull")]. To the south of it there is a "Boundary ditch" - a valley, it is called Yu-yi. Location: "many devilbirds" [<url>. I ("Wing") and Gui ("Spirits")]. This is where the area called Kaifeng ("Wind Kai") originates.

[§ 6] Another 400 li to the east - Feishan ("Not a mountain")78. Location: "there's a lot of gold and jade up there, no water. There are many fu snakes and worms below it."

[§ 7] Another 500 li to the east is Yangjiazhishan 79 ("Double Yang Power" Mountain). Location: "no' grass ' or 'tree', lots of water."

[§ 8] Another 500 li to the east is Guanxiangshan 80 (Xiangshui Irrigation Waters Mountain). Location: "there is a lot of "wood" at the top, no "grass", a lot of birds-devils." Gui ("Spirits")]. There is no zodiac animal.

[§ 9] Another 500 li to the east is Jishang81 ("Cock Mountain"). Location: "there's a lot of gold up there, a lot of cinnabar sand." The black waters of Mercury flow out from here, heading south, they flow into the Sea. Zodiac images: in the middle - the fishtuan [the 5th year of Jupiter, cyclic signs u-yu], in appearance like a crucian carp; the fish fu [- the summer season of Fu-zhi, cyclic sign u], but with the bristles of a boar[cyclic signyu]. Fish make a sound like pigs[Jupiteru-uandu-u]. When the zodiac is visible in the sky, the great dry land is coming in the Middle Kingdom[Fu-zhi -three hottest decades of summer].

[§ 10] Another 400 li to the east is Lingqiu zhishan 82 ("Hill of Orders"). Location: "no' grass ' or 'tree', lots of fire [- Mars]". To the south of it is a valley. It's called the Middle Valley. From here originates Tiaofeng ("Wind of Tiao"). Zodiac image: - a bird that looks like an owl with a human face and four eyes [year of Ji-Mao (cyclic signs-6-4) - 16th], has ears. Called yu [YY 16 Yu "Image"]. Her "name" speaks for itself. Harbinger of the Great Landmass [when Jupiter converges with the planet of the element of fire - Mars].

11] Another 370 li to the east - Longzhe zhishan ("Part of Mount Kunlun")83. [§]: "above it is much gold and jade, and under it is much qinghu stone, a green cinnabar stone." There's a" tree " [Jupiter] that looks like an ear of corn with red leaves.

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With veins, its is like that of a lacquer tree, and it tastes like molasses. [The deity of Jupiter] is nourished so that it does not know hunger, because it can overwork and get tired, the deity is called "white gui-gnomon", and can be called"blood jade".

Another 580 li to the east is Yuto zhishan85 (Emperor Yu's Brush Bag Mountain).[§12] Location: "many devils-animals and large snakes."

[§ 13] Another 580 li to the east is Nanyu zhishan ("Southern Mountain of Yu"). Location: "above it is a lot of gold and jade, under it-a lot of water." There is a cave there: water goes in and out of it. In summer, it flows out, but in winter it disappears. Zuoshui Waters ("Left") they originate here, they flow to the southeast and fall into the Sea. There's a male phoenix and a female phoenix Peahen 86.

[§ 14] In total, the "Third Book of the Southern Mountains" mentions 14 mountains from Mount Tianyu ("Heavenly Emperor Yu") to Mount Nanyu ("Southern Mountain Yu"), their length is 6530 li. The spirits of these mountains have the body of a dragon and the face of a Man.87 As a sacrifice, they are offered a white dog, glutinous rice, perform prayers, sprinkling the altar with blood 88.

The outer seas. Southern Book

Everything that the "earth" [Jupiter represents and carries within itselfembodied within a half-year-a "combination of six" [months]. sky that lies between the "four seas", illuminated by the Sun and Moon, is a track-a path marked by stars, written as the four seasons. This is what the planet Tai-sui ("Sun" or "Great Solar Year") was for, which was miraculously born of spirit deities. Zodiacs, extremely different in appearance, promise us either bad luck, or a long life. Only a sage can comprehend their Tao.

The space of the "Outer Sea" extends from the south-western tip to the south-eastern limit.

[§ 1] The kingdom of Jiexiong ("Where the full moon measurements end" - in the southwest [). Tianyuan ("Heaven with hell"), 4h-3h; -10°-21°]. Here they stop measuring space by Person [Bei Dou]. Nanshan("Southern Mountains") are located from it in the southeast. Starting from this mountain, there is a change in fixing time by seasons, here it is the season of the 7th moonDuanwu,or "Five yadonos", at the expense of time by the years of the Jupiter cycle and its amplitude - "snake", and then by the spaces of the seas and their"fish". Other sources also say thatNanshanlocated to the southeast of the Jiexiong Kingdom89

[§ 2] Biinyao bird 90 ("Paired wings") space [from YY 8 Bi to]. And ("Wing")] is located to the east. Her colorsqing(blue-green) andzhu(red). Biinyao are two birds. Some say that Biinyao is in the southeast.

[§3] In the same place, to the southeast - Yumingo (the kingdom of the "Feathered People").91). Its inhabitants have a long, human-like head, but a feathered body. Some say that the kingdom is located to the southeast of Biinyao. Those people have long (chan) chins.

[§4] Ibid. god-men, twice eight in number 92. Shoulder to shoulder, they carry out night service in the "wild fields"on the boards of the sovereign-emperor. They are located to the east of Yumin ("Feathered People"). They have small chins (xiao) and red shoulders (chi). There are only sixteen of them.

[§ 5] Bifannyao 93-the bird of Bifan [or "Bird". Bi ("Pitchfork")"] is located west of the Eastern Blue Waters. A bird with the face of a man, but with one leg. Some say it is to the east of the sixteenth God-man.

[§ 6] Huantouguo (Shaggy Head Kingdom)94 [phone number. Mao ("Duck's Nest"). The local deity - with wings and a bird's beak. In the square []. Mao] the deity catches fish. Others claim that the kingdomof Huantougo isto the south of the square of the constellation Bi ("Pitchfork"). Or they call it differently-Huanzhugo("Red Kingdom of Huan").

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[§7] Yanhogo95 (kingdom of the "Fire-breathing") - south of Huanzhugo. The local deity looks like an animal, and is black in color. It gives birth to fire itself and immediately spews it out of its mouth. Some say that his kingdom is east of Hanzhu.

ruoxue[§8] Sanzhushu96 ("Triple Pearl Tree") is located to the north of the Yanho Kingdom. It grows higher than Chishui ("Red Waters"). That tree looks like a cypress tree studded with pearls. Others claim that the tree is similar to [two zodiac zones away from the Da-ho ("Big Lights") section - the Xiao xue ("Small Snows") and Da xue ("Big Snows") seasons section].

[§9] Sanmiago 97 (the kingdom of the "Three Fields of the Third Year of Cultivation") is located east of Chishui. The people there walk in single file. It is also said that the name of the kingdom is different, namely Sanmaogo - "Three Duck Feathers" [ - the 33rd year of the Jupiter cycle or the 9th year of Yan-mao].

[§ 10] The kingdom of Zhigo is east of the Three Duck Feathers . The people there are yellow and deftly shoot arrows at snakes 98.

[§11] Ibid., Guan Xiongguo (the realm of "People with holes in their Chests"). They are strung together, because everyone has a hole in their chest." Other sources say that it is a kingdom to the east of Zhigo.

[§12] Jiaojingo (the kingdom of the "People with intertwined legs") is located to the east. There the people have intertwined legs 100. Some say it's a kingdom to the east of the people with the pierced chest.

[§ 14] The Kingdom of Zhishego101 ("Mouth and Tongue") Bei Dou] is east of the last realm described here, or it is east of the "Immortality" realm.

[§ 15] Kunlun Xu - [Kunlun Hill - ]. Xu ("The Void") east of [the hill] is equal to a measure of four squares102.

[§16] Rifleman Yi103 fought the zochi ("blade teeth") in the wild fields of Shouhua ("Blooming Longevity"). Rifleman Yi caught up with him with an arrow and killed him east of Kunlun. Rifleman Yi had a bow and arrow, while jiochi grabbed a shield. Some say it was a spear.

[§ 17] Sanshougo104 (the kingdom of the "Three-headed People") is located to the east. All residents have three heads with one body 105 [three stars of the Biao handle]. And they also say: The kingdom is located to the east ofJiochi.

[§ 18] Zhouyao (the realm of the "Sacrifice Intended for the Zhou cycle") lies to the east of the "Three-Headed" realm. The people there are very tiny, but all with hats and belts. This realm is sometimes called Jiaoyaogo106 ("The realm where the sacrifice is roasted over a bonfire").

[§19] Ibid. Changbigo 107 (the kingdom of the "Long-armed"). The people who catch fish in the sea, simultaneously pull out a fish with both hands. Those lands to the east of Jiaoyao.

[§20] Dishan is a mountain of the [five] Di tribes. Sovereign Yao is buried on its southern side, and Sovereign Ku is buried on its northern side. On that mountain there are animals: bear, common and brown, striped tiger, gecko, leopard. There are also [other objects:] "Li-gong Palace "[YG 30 Li], in the south, Shizhou ("visible physicality "[Anti-Jupiter]), Huqiao [a total of eight objects corresponding to the "8 life-giving markings": year, month, day, hour of the day]. There is also a 300-square-li Seilin Forest [300 years of the calendar cycle corresponding to the space of the xin-si year (cyclic signs 8 - 6) or the 18th year of the calendar].

[§ 21] The South Sea deity Zhu-yun 109 ("The one to whom the summer sacrifices are offered on the festival of Zhu-yun") has the body of an animal and the face of a man. He sits/rules over two dragons.

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comments

1 The passage provides landmarks for the easternmost tip of the first section, "Southern Mountains", which is called" Magpie Ridge"in the monument, and Chun - wei ("Quail's Tail") in astronomy. Mount Zhaoyao is a "Wavering" star, located 10° south of Eta (the 7th star) of Ursa Major, which completely coincides with the constellation Bei Dou ("Northern Dipper"), and belongs to the "Central Palace". The Zhaoyao star marks a section of the sky corresponding to the beginning of the calendar 60-year cycle. This year is called She-ti-ge by the two constellations that mark it - the Right She-ti and the Left She-ti .

2 Sihai ("West Sea") it is not indicated on the map, in the right branch of the Tianshi configuration ("Sky Market") There is a Donghai star ("East Sea") . The "Western Sea" is the area from southwest to northeast that lies above the ecliptic-the region of the sun. Nyu ("Bull") and Nyu ("Maiden") . In the" Book of Mountains and Seas", the hexagrams of the " Book of Changes "are not mentioned under their" names", usually they are written in hieroglyphs denoting space, which gives grounds in this case to write in the text of YG 19 Lin. YY 19 Lin probably marks cycles of 19 years. "The first book" Southern Mountains "covers the space marked in the" Book of Mountains and Seas " by the years of the 60-year cycle (42, 54, 6, 18, 30) and hexagrams with similar numbers.

3 Phrase: "a lot of cinnamon wood - a lot of gold and jade" - a formula that encodes the coordinates of the site. It is understood by the translator as an indication of the landmarks of the Zhaoyao star: "through 5 zodiac zones to the west of the star lies China. Kui ("Scepter"). " Translation is based on the analysis of words entered in the formula. The word do ("many") is part of the hieroglyph meaning "located", and therefore it is translated as "located", "location". The combination "cinnamon tree" has a figurative meaning. In the flower calendar of seasons, gui ("cinnamon") corresponds to the 8th moon. The word "cinnamon" is included in the spelling of the name of the 15th zodiac sign. Kui (the word kui consists of the sign gui- "cinnamon" and the sign da- "big"). The expression "many cinnamon trees" has the meaning: "location of the constellation Kui", it is a recommendation on how to find Zhaoyao by the name of Kui. According to the correlative system of symbols, "gold" is a symbol of the West, " jade "(yu) is a synonym for the number 5, since the word yu is also the name of the 5th tone of the musical scale, here, perhaps, a synonym for the "fifth palace of the firmament" with the North Star in the center.

4 "Grass" (cao) - Anti-Jupiter, "Solar year" - Tai-sui. The interpretation is based on the explanation of the dictionary "Erya". About the position of the "grass" - Anti-Jupiter, it is said that this time-space corresponds in the calendar "Jia-tzu" to the years under the motto Zhu - [li]. The word zhu (lit. "prayer") is included in the names of the six years in the "Jia-tzu" calendar corresponding to the even zodiac zones: Zhu-li Se-chia, Zhu-li Da-hu-an-lo, Zhu-li Shan-e, Zhu-li Chi-fen-jo, Zhu-li Da- Yuan-hsien, Zhu-li Zuo-E. The first combination (Zhu-li) is the name of the zodiac space occupied by Jupiter according to the "celestial trunks" or "celestial hangers" (tian gan), the second combination (Xie-chia, Da-huang-lo, etc.) is the name of the zodiac space occupied by Anti - Jupiter according to the di zhi system ("earth's rings"). branches") in the same zodiac zones. Accordingly, the section opens with a description of the firmament of that period of the 12-year Jupiter cycle, when the position of Anti-Jupiter is fixed under the 6th sign of si. According to Sima Qian, this is the 4th year called Da-huang-lo [Anti-Jupiter under the sign of si, Jupiter under the sign of Xu in the constellations Kui and Low ("Shackles")] . "The Book of Mountains and Seas" is a spatial projection of calendar time on the star road of Jupiter and Anti-Jupiter. In the" Book of the Southern Mountains", Anti-Jupiter is called Qing-hua ("Green Flower"). Anti-Jupiter goes from east to west, "green" is the symbol of the east, which means that Anti-Jupiter embodies the "Radiance of the East". The expression Zhu-yu ("Excess of Zhu years") is an indication of the remainder when calculating 60-year cycles. According to Sima Qian, the first month of summer, the 6th zodiac zone under the sign of si, corresponds to the year of Zhu-li Da-huang-lo, and the last month of summer, the 8th zodiac zone, corresponds to the year of Zhu-li Se-jia. The "Book of Mountains and Seas" constantly refers to sacrificial offerings to constellations and planets. The" nutrition "of the planet can have the character of "nutrition for previous benefits", for example, "for granting the position of the zodiac space exactly at the new moon" [Zhou and..., 1993, p. 292, 1013]), or for the sake of anticipating an unfavorable situation.

5 The passage describes the situation of Jupiter going astray under the 6th cyclic sign si, which is observed in the Gu-yu season ("Bread rains"), it is recommended to" show him respect " (pei), because it is his responsibility to determine the zodiac space and the corresponding season. This is indicated by the "name" of Jupiter-Mi-gu. "Name" of Jupiter letters. it is being read: "Lost ground in the season of "Bread rains"". This is the 6th season of the peasant calendar, corresponding, according to the calendar of seasons, to the 5th month or 5th zodiac zone of Chen. In this case, we do not describe the situation of the year Zhu-li Da-huang-lo, but indicate the situation of Jupiter's stay in this space in the 10th year of Da-yuan-hsien (Jupiter under the 5th sign of Chen, Anti-Jupiter under the 12th sign of hai).

6 The first zodiac "Books of the Southern Mountains" is double, these are two monkeys. The" name " of the zodiac monkeys sin sin is formed from the name of the constellation Sin ("Star"), whose zodiac symbol is a monkey, and the name of Jupiter Sui-sin ("Star of the year"). The double-repeated word sin has the meaning of "double star". Combination of bai er ("white ears") it can also be understood as "to the west-two", "to the west-the second zone", since white is the symbolic color of the west, and the word er ("ears") is a homonym of the word er ("two"). The described sector lies through

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The two zodiac zones are the 9th zodiac zone under the sign of Shen, whose zodiac symbol is "monkey" (yuan) and "monkey" (hou). Bai er can also be understood as the number "102", the 102nd year of the Jupiter cycle, since bai is also a homonym for the word "hundred".

7 People (ren) is one of the most common names of the constellation Bei Dou . "Star of Fu", this is "Star of Fu-sin" - another" name " of Tai-sui ("Solar planet"). The function of the Bay Dou constellation is to determine the positions of Anti-Jupiter, especially when Jupiter goes off the track, these situations are specifically specified in both the Book of Changes and the Book of Mountains and Seas. Such behavior of Jupiter qualifies as" morbid states " of the planet and the deity of the planet at the same time.

8 In the name" Liji Waters", the Li sign means "beautiful", "beautiful". The sign of li was also perceived by commentators as a different spelling of YY 30 Li, which completes the first half of the calendar cycle in the "Book of Changes".

9 is meant in case Jupiter goes off the track. The combination yu-pei is made up of the" name " of GG 16 Yu and the encrypted name of the constellation Tianshi ("Sky Market"), since the word pei is written as "market and water". The Tienshi constellation is located in the area that corresponds to the north and winter, it is perceived as "water expanses".

10 The last phrase contains a request not to speed up the movement, but at the same time it can be understood as a request to protect against pestilence. The word ji ("pestilence") also means" to destroy"," to leave the world","to disappear". In the text of the Book of Changes, GG 24 Fu refers to the words: "They make sacrifices so that the appearance and departure of [the planet] do not have failures (ji)" [I ching..., 1997, p.336].

The 11th Pu indicates the variants of reading hieroglyphs that indicate conditional mountains. According to his recommendation, "Mount Dantin" should be read as " Mount Chantin "(in the square 14 h-12 h; +39°). This is the constellation Changchen ("Constant Series"), which lies from the constellation Zhaoyao in the next Anti-Jupiter zodiac zone. The word chan ("constant") also has the meaning of "correct", "true". When the planets follow a given path without going astray, this is called Chang-tao - "The Constant Path".

12 When translating planetary coordinates, the translator assumed that the word yang in the name of the tree is a homonym for the word "fire", yan ("flame"," fire") is a symbol of the south; mu ("tree") is a symbol and synonym for the east; the combination "yang tree" can be read as "south-east". The combination "white monkey" can be read as "west of the shen zone", i.e. it means the Xu zone, when the 9th year of the Yang-mao Jupiter cycle is marked (Anti-Jupiter on the winter ecliptic under the sign of Xu, Jupiter under the sign of si). This is the year of Yan-feng Yan-mao, corresponding to the 11th year of the calendar. However, the "Southern Mountains" describe the summer sky and, accordingly, give the position of Anti-Jupiter on the summer ecliptic, and not on the winter one. It can be assumed that we are talking about the position of Anti-Jupiter not under the 4th sign of Mao (late spring), but under the sign of wu (Jupiter under the 1st sign of Tzu). This is the year of Yan-feng Dun-tsang, the 31st year of the calendar and the 5th year of the Jupiter cycle. The combination "water jade" makes sense - " to the north through 5 zodiac zones [from the shen zone]", the combination "yellow gold" - "southwest", since "gold" is a symbol of the west, huang ("yellow") is the time of golden autumn.

13 Mount Yuanyi ("Monkey wings") - the constellation of Xuanyuan and the position of Jupiter in the year of Yang-Mao - in the 9th year of its movement. In the name Xuan-yuan, the word Xuan is written with the sign "monkey" (yuan). The combination "Monkey wings" can be literally read as: "the constellation of Yi ("Wing") in the 9th zodiac zone under the sign of Shen." But in this zone there is no constellation And, but there is another "bird" constellation - Mao ("Duck's nest") . The word mao refers to the year of Jupiter Yan-mao, and the mention of the 9th zodiac zone shen (the key word "monkey" is its symbol) refers to the 9th year of Jupiter's movement around the Sun called Yan-mao, when Jupiter passes the constellation Yi ("Wing").

14 The Xuan-Yuan constellation is defined by several coordinate points: its center is located at the latitude of the constellation Gui ("Spirits") (it corresponds to the image of "animals-devils"); through the five zodiac zones to the west (the meaning of the image is "white jade") - GG 54 Gui - mei (the image of "fish-devils"); Xuan-yuan is also marked by GG 24 Fu (the image of "worms of fu") and Jiushe square ("Huge Snake") (image of "snake-devils"), according to the constellation Mao ("Duck's Nest") and the position of Jupiter in the constellation Gui ("Spirits") . The translation is based on the analysis of keywords: guai ("devils") is a synonym for the word gui ("spirit"); yu in the meaning of" fish " replaces the word yu-the 5th tone of the scale, i.e. the literal meaning of the phrase: "five in the zodiac zone of si", and since the word si (6th zodiac zone) sounds like si - "four", it can be assumed that the number 54 - YY 54 Gui-mei ("Return of the elder sister") is written, marking the 54th year of the calendar under the motto Qiang-wu Da-huang-lo. The" name "of the Gu Fu hexagram" Rebirth "is inscribed in the name of the image of the"fu worm".

15 The combination of nu-yang in the name of the mountain can be interpreted literally as "the second star under the sign of the element tree", since the character nu is made up of the signs "tree" and "chou"(the 2nd cyclic sign in the system of "earth branches"). This refers to the constellation Bei Dou, the second star of the Biao Handle is the star Kai-yang ("Opening the light") and the second star of the Bucket is Xuan ("Pattern"). The position of the Kai-yang star is indicated. The handle of Biao, which is identified with yang - "male", lies in the southwest (the word chi - "red" - a synonym for the south), hence the zodiac "tail red", the Bucket itself, which is associated with yin - "female", lies in the west ("white" - a synonym for the west).

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16 The zodiac image is located in the space of the zodiac zone under the sign u, whose symbol is "horse". The phrase bai tou ("white head") is the number 101, and the y zone marks the 101st year of the Jupiter cycle. The tiger is a symbolic image of the western quarter of the firmament. The combination "red tail" (chi wei) is a hint of the last month of summer under the sign of Wei. In the situation described, when Jupiter is located in a section of the sky under the cyclic sign y, Anti-Jupiter (or the Handle of the Biao) lies under the sign yu (point of the west). Hence the situational name of the Bay Dou constellation in this area - "Deer from Shu". Although Shu is the western kingdom of ancient China, the "deer" is the zodiac image and symbol of the constellation Zhang ("Bow") . The constellation Bei Dou was perceived as the "voice of heaven", whose divinations are a "heavenly command". The "esteemed constellation" Bei Dou was asked to send down children and grandchildren.

17 The symbol "black turtle" fits into the northern quarter of the sky. The constellation Gui ("Turtle") is also located there.

18 The" voice " of the symbolic turtle seems to remind us that we must "cut down the tree" - that is, Jupiter, whose symbol "tree", here exhausts its cycle. It is suggested that the zodiac zone should not be marked according to the constellation Jian ("Establishing") in this area. and according to Bei Dou, which in the astronomer's vocabulary was referred to as "set up a tree" (jian mu). The" sound-voice "produced by a zodiac animal is a" sound wave " that has a duration in both time and space. Yin character ("sound") - the name of the 5th star of the constellation Bei Dou-Yu-heng ("Jade yardstick"), which is responsible for determining periods of 120 days equal to a third of the year.

19 The phrase: "They honor [the planet] so that it is 'not deaf' "is translated by E. M. Yanshina as:" They carry them with them (pei zhi) from deafness (bu lun). They can cure [this disease] (ke and wei di)" [Yanshina, 1977, p. 29]. In this translation, "carry with you" or "on the belt" suggests xuangui - "turtle with a bird's head". But the image of the zodiac "bird's head and boa tail" in the "Book of Mountains and Seas" makes sense: the " head "(the beginning of the cycle) is where the Bird is ("Red Bird" is the symbol of the South), and the " tail "(the end of the cycle) is where the square Jiushe ("Huge Snake") . The word pei ("to wear a pendant or decoration on the belt") simultaneously means "respect", "honor". The revered subject of the firmament is Anti-Jupiter, which corresponds in motion to Jupiter and Bay Dou. The planet is given signs of reverence so that it "listens", "listens" to Jupiter, "is not deaf", because otherwise it may end up in the constellation Di . In the text, the hieroglyph dm ("base") is inscribed in the hieroglyph with the key" disease", which turns the" Book of Mountains and Seas " into a medical book. But here "disease" (most often in the most unpleasant variants: scabies, tumor, hemorrhoids) means the wrong, abnormal behavior of the planet Jupiter.

20 The name "Mount Di" is written as the zodiac constellation Di ("Base") and the key "tree". Perhaps this combination shows incorrect parking of Jupiter on the zodiac constellations.

21 "Water" is a symbol of the north and Mercury. The expression "no grass or tree" means that the corresponding Jupiter and Anti-Jupiter paths do not run through the site. Jupiter in the 11th year of its movement is located in the constellations Di ("Base"), Fan ("House") and Xin ("Heart"), in case of movement disorders, it appears in the constellation Mao ("Duck's Nest"). If Jupiter is in the constellation Mao, then in the event of a motion disturbance, it may end up in the constellation Di.

22 The fish section lies below Chi-dao (equator) . "Fish" is a symbolic substitute for the word "sea". Phrase: "on the tail of the snake - the constellation I ("Wing") "means:" ends on the zodiac image of the constellation I - "snake"". The constellation And its zigzag contour is very similar to both a snake and a bird's wing. The image of a fish with its scales was usually a symbolic image of a large cycle.

23 The Anti-Jupiter cycle began in the spring or near summer, when Jupiter was already finishing its movement. Winter is the period of the" demise"of the Tai-sui cycle ("Solar Planet"), this is the meaning of the phrase: "in winter it dies, by summer it is reborn".

24 If you look at the map, then along the course of Jupiter (from east to north) lies the Tanmu square ("Altar and Grave") (18h-16h; - 40°; - 60° on the map). Slightly higher up is the constellation Wei ("Tail") (6th). "The Eastern Palace"). The zodiac image and symbol of the constellation Wei is" tiger", most likely, this is what is meant, especially since the" name "of the zodiac image is Lei, which means" variety", in this case the image of a"tiger creature". In Chinese culture, the "jealous wife" has an alternative image - "powdered tigress". In the" Book of Mountains and Seas", the place where wives stay is marked on the constellation Nu-chuan ("Virgin's Bed"). It lies to the north of the described area (18 h;+40°).

25 Constellation Ji ("Basket") - the 7th of the 28 zodiac constellations, the last constellation of the "Eastern Palace". Jupiter can appear in it on the 6th year of the cycle called Xie-chia in case of violation of its movement. The location of the constellation Ji is determined by the fifth parallel (yu - "jade" - homonym of the 5th tone of the scale), counting from the south, i.e. from the top of the map. It lies diagonally and to the north of the constellation Gui ("Spirits") (the word" devil trees "is synonymous with the meaning of"the site of Jupiter-tree in the constellation Gui").

26 Zodiac image refers to the 8th zodiac zone under the sign of Wei, its symbol is "ram". The image of bo-chi ends in 9 zodiac zones from wei. The word wei ("tail") sounds like "end", "end"

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and like the zodiac zone of wei. "Four ears" (si-er) sounds like "4" (si) and " 2 "(er), which can mean "twice four", i.e. eight. Thus, we mean the" eighth " zodiac zone of wei and GY 8 Bi, as well as the number 42 and GY 42 I, marking the 42nd year of the calendar under the signs i-si. The expression "eyes on the back", given that the ideogram " eye " is a symbol of the moon, can be understood as the lunar month and as the north. The words "spin" and" north "are homonyms (bay), the hieroglyph" north"is written in the word bay ("spin"), so the word" north " repeated twice here means north - northeast, a section of the 12th year of Jupiter. In priestly texts, when it comes to zodiac images, it is often emphasized that these are not real animals. Hence: the "Shadow of Jupiter" is not afraid of "bochy", since all these "tigers" and "cats" are such that they "do not bite".

27 "Bird" - zodiac "chicken", symbol of the month under the sign of yu. These are the positions of Anti-Jupiter, they can be "calculated" according to the zodiac image: "three heads" means that the cycle begins in the 3rd month under the sign of yin; "six eyes" indicates the space lying across the six zones of lunar months under the sign of yu; "three legs and three wings" encode the 6th year of Jupiter in the zodiac zone of wei. The" name "of the Changfu bird is written with the key" bird "and the sign"shangfu". The syllable shang is included in the name of the 10th zodiac zone under the cyclic sign gui-Shang-zhang (or Zhao-yang). "Chicken" combined in its "name" an indication of the 8th year of the Zhao-yang Xie-chia calendar, since the "four ears" (si-er) denote the number 8.

28 The constellation Qingqiu ("Green Hill") is not labeled as a "mountain", it is a "hill" (qiu), which means that the calendar time-space here is considered a large block. The Qingqiu constellation lies below the Yi ("Wing") constellation, counting from the top of the map, in the fifth square in longitude, at the latitude of the Xin ("Heart")constellation (zodiac image "fox"). In this space is the hexagram GY 64 Wei-chi - "Not the end yet", on which the calendar cycle of the "Book of Changes" from GY 64 ends, the text to it says: "the little fox got his tail wet". The meaning of this phrase: the Xin constellation does not mark the end of the entire cycle, only a part of it is marked, the entire cycle will end after 12 years in the constellation Wei ("Tail"), which is in the same zodiac zone. One of the explanations in the Book of Changes says: "I Ching" ends in the constellation Wei ("Tail") and begins with the constellation Jue ("Horn") " [Zhou Yi..., 1993, p. 169]. The Russian fairy-tale image of a fox dropping its tail into a hole may be a remote profane version of the calendar situation of a Celtic or Scandinavian calendar-astronomical epic. Meaning of the image: the completion of the cycle of the Great Year in 10,000 years is marked by a certain constellation, whose symbol is "fox".

29 The phrase: "the voice-sound is like a baby crying" indicates that the Anti-Jupiter in the zodiac zone Tzu completes the cycle, and Jupiter," born "recently, i.e., who recently began his cycle in the 2nd zodiac zone of chou, in the 1st zodiac zone under the sign of Tzu -" more a baby."

30 The clause that sacrifices are made to the wrong planet, which occupies the position of YY18 Gu, indicates that these sacrifices are not for Jupiter (YY18 Gu is associated with the 2nd zone of chow), but for Anti-Jupiter.

31 "Bird" [- Venus, Guan-xin ("All-seeing Star")] corresponds to YY 20 Guan " All seers [of the planet]". The combination of guan-guan is the first lines of the first song of the ritual "Book of Songs". The word guan means "to contemplate", the combination guan-guan means not so much " bird calls "[- Venus, which is also called Da-hsiao ("Big Bird")], as stated in one of the comments to this text in the "Book of Songs", namely"double contemplation". The Book of Changes says: "The' great all-seeing [planet] 'is at the top, Jupiter or ' the one that follows Anti-Jupiter' - in GG 5 Xu, both [planets] look down from the heavens on those below. This is called guan ("to contemplate")" [I ching..., 1997, p. 335]. YY 5 Xu corresponds to the 5th year of the calendar, Jupiter is located in the zodiac zone hai. But this refers to the 5th year of Jupiter Dunzang and the appearance of Venus under the 5th cyclic sign of Chen.

32 "Waters of Ying" mark the Milky Way, they seem to flow down from the square Ying-hsien ("Celestial Ying") diagonally and circle the constellation Yi ("Wing"). Perhaps we are referring to the route of Venus, when at the beginning of the journey it is called Ying-sin ("Star of war", or "Star of response"), and at the end of it becomes the planet of" Great Benevolence " - Da-tse.

33 The zodiac "Red Fish zhu" indicates the last year of Jupiter's Chi fen-jo cycle. The zhu sign is made up of the following characters: yu ("fish"), which is a homonym for the number 5, and GG 5 Xu ("Must"). The combination of "fish of zhu" is written as the number 55, i.e. it is the hexagram GG 55 Feng ("Abundance"), the 55th year of the calendar corresponding to the zodiac zone y. The zodiac zone of wei corresponds to the 56th year under the motto Zhu-li Xie-chia. They offer sacrifices to the planets so that the boundaries of years and their spaces are not erased. The space from YY55 to YY64 already corresponds to "seas". In the ninth juang of the Book of Mountains and Seas, titled " The Outer Seas." The Eastern Book (Haiwai dong jing) refers to the special calendar and astronomical function of the Qingqiu constellation: "The Ruler [Emperor Yu - the North Star] ordered Shuhao [the deity of the East] to measure the distance from the eastern tip to the western one by steps... In his right hand, he held a counting board, and with his left hand, he pointed north from Qingqiu ("Green Hill")." Shuhao measured out a space of 9,800 paces (bu). If one of his "steps" is 19 years, then the entire period is 500 years, which is called Da-bian ("Big change of the sky"). If one of his "steps" is 76 years old(bu, if it is written with a different sign, means a measure of 76 years), then the time measure is approximately 12.5 years of "Jupiter's life", i.e. this is a period equal to 150 years (12.5 x 12) - Jupiter's revolution around the Sun. The function of the constellation, which is called the "hill", apparently, is to count time by "years of Jupiter's life" (one revolution in 12 years is considered to be one "year of Jupiter"). The name Qingqiu means "Eastern Hill".

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34 The area described lies on a parallel that runs close to the configuration of Tianshi and its star Donghai. The expression "a lot of sand and stone" probably makes sense: "the site is marked with a small phase of the Moon zhou", since the word "sand"includes the sign shao ("little");" stone " is a tribute (a measure of area) and a symbolic image of a square denoting a certain space. This is all the more likely, since the following refers to the waters of Phan - the "watershed" formed by the constellation Phan, which lies on the meridian 16 h (phan letters. "square")", the sign is included in the name of the constellation Fan ("House"). The fan sign is written with the key "water", since it means" border water", separating the" Eastern Palace "from the" Northern Palace " of the firmament. The phrase "a lot of white jade" is read as the coordinates of the site: "located from the point of the west ("white") through five squares (yu - "five") by latitude". If you calculate the squares to the west of the Shen zone, then the Fang constellation is indeed in the fifth square.

35 Zodiac images, which have "dragon heads and bird torso", represent a record of coordinates: the zodiacs begin in the "Eastern Palace" of the firmament (the symbol "dragon"), and are located in the " Southern Palace "(the symbol "bird").

36 Describes the rules for offering sacrifices to the main deity of the firmament - Great Jupiter, called "Big Shadow", which corresponds to the situation of the 7th year of the Tung-tan Jupiter cycle. The phrase "burying in the ground" emphasizes that Jupiter is understood as yin and is marked with the symbol "earth" [Erya..., 1999, p. 181], while Anti-Jupiter is yang, its symbol is "sky".

37 The Second Book describes the space of the 7th zodiac zone under the sign of wu in the system of " earth branches "called Dun-tsang or under the sign of geng in the system of" heavenly branches " called Shang-zhang or Shang-heng. Space corresponds to the 5th year of the Jupiter cycle called Dun-tsang (Anti - Jupiter under the sign of wu, Jupiter under the sign of yu) and the 8th year of Zuo-wo, or Zuo-e (Anti-Jupiter under the sign of yu, Jupiter under the sign of wu), as well as five years of the 60-year-old calendar: 43-mu Yuzhao Dun-tsang, 31-mu Yan-feng Dun-tsang, 5-mu Tu-wei Dun-tsang, 7-mu Shang-heng Dun-tsang, 19-mu Heng-ai Dun-tsang.

38 The name of the Jo-bi site is made up of two syllables. The syllable jo is the first part of the name of the location of Jupiter under the sign u-Jo-yun. The second syllable bi consists of two parts: the first part, according to the dictionary "Erya", means "land", "territory", the second part - "name" GG 8 Bi "Comparison". Hence, the whole combination is proposed to be understood as "the lands of GY 8 Bi". GY 8 Bi corresponds to the 9th zodiac zone under the sign of Shen, which is to the west of the described site. The reference to" earth YY 8 Bi", which lies to the north, is a false premise, since the number 8 indicates the 8th year of Jupiter, which is marked on this site. Marking the Changshe landmark ("Long Tongue") is also illogical. If the Changshe area is analogous to the constellation Quanshe ("Coiled Tongue") (the zodiac zone under the sign of yu), then it should be located to the west of the constellation Liu ("Willow"), and not to the east, as stated in the text. It seems that the Changshe landmark is entered only to indicate the zodiac zone yu, and then, along with the previous phrase about "the lands of GG 8 Bi", the text carries the following information: "through 5 zodiac zones to the north - the area under the sign Yu; the position of the planets under the signsy-y is the 5th year of Jupiter; the position of the planets under the signs y-y through 8 zodiac zones to the east corresponds to the 8th year of the Jupiter cycle."

Chishui 39 ("Red Waters") - part of the zodiac space lying under the equator of Chi-dao, starting from the 10th zodiac zone under the sign of yu. This region of the constellations Qian-nu ("Ox-breeder") and Zhi-nu ("Weaver"). According to the myth, they were married, but they were separated by the Supreme Lord. The term Chi-dao sometimes refers to the summer part of the ecliptic (12h-6h), so the phrase: "a lot of white jade, red cinnabar grains" is a clarification indicating that to the west of the constellation Liu ("Willow") is the beginning of the summer ecliptic of the Chi-dao site. The yu word "jade", which means the 5th tone, is synonymous with liu ("willow"), and the word "white" is the color symbol of the West. In this section, the Chiu-tzu space is encoded under the sign hai. The first part of the word - the syllable ju-consists of the characters nu ("woman") and qu ("take"). If this hieroglyph is "cut" into the characters inscribed in it, then the phrase "take a wife", "take a woman as a wife"is obtained. Two constellations - " Ox-breeder "and" Weaver " - concretize this meaning: according to legend, the Shepherd married the Weaver. "Red cinnabar grains" may have been a literary metaphor for the wedding night, when "cinnabar moistened the mats". Perhaps the symbol has a different meaning, but the name Ju-tzu plays in the" Book of Changes "precisely in its" cut "form as" taking a wife". The text to YY 4 Meng says: "The third six: "They do not take a woman as their wife," they look at the golden husband [Jupiter coming from the west]." Meaning of the situation: in the 10th year of Jupiter, the" aged "Anti-Jupiter under the 12th sign of high completes its cycle, and Jupiter is at the age of the "golden boy", i.e., a young deity. The sum of the Jupiter and Anti-Jupiter cycle years is always 13 (the 10th year of Jupiter + the 3rd year of Anti-Jupiter, the 11th year + the 2nd year, etc.).

40 Bird-image of the southern quarter of the firmament Zhu-niao ("Red Bird") - time-a space equal to the time of year. This section describes the area from Qiuxie Square ("Huge Crab") (10h-8h) to Huli Square ("Fox and Leopard") (22h-20h; +20+40°) in latitude and to Tiangou Square ("Sky Dog") (10 - 8 ; - 20-40°) in longitude.

41 Area of the sky lying to the east of the constellation Liu ("Willow"). Changshe ("Long Tongue") is the constellation of Tai - wei ("The Great Unfathomable"). It is so named here, apparently, because the constellation Tai-wei lies on the same meridian as Bei Dou, which has the function of" speaking " predictions. The zodiac in the form of a monkey in the Shanhai Jing edition of 1988 follows the contours of the branches of the Tai-wei constellation. The phrase "looks like a monkey with four ears" contains encrypted numbers: the word "monkey" (yu) sounds like the 5th

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the tone of the Chinese scale (yu) and can be understood as the number 5, which respectively determines the location of the constellation Tai-wei in the five zodiac zones from the constellation Liu; Si-er ("four ears") sounds like the numbers 4 and 2, i.e. on a par with the number 8 (see comment 27), it can be the number 42 or YY 42 Yu. Thus, the entire phrase calls out the" name " of YG 42 Yu.

42 The landmarks of the constellation U-zhu-hou - ("Five Princes") are indicated according to the formula "a lot of jade - a lot of gold", the meaning of which is: "in the direction of the south in longitude-the 5th [square], in the direction of "winter"-through 5 zodiac zones from U-zhu-hou lies point of the west".

43 The phrase "like a man "("Man "is one of the" names " of the constellation Bei Dou) has the same meaning as all combinations with the word zhu ("like"), which means the number 2, and can be understood: "through two zodiac zones - the constellation "Man"". Wild boar is a symbol of the zodiac zone hai and the constellation Shi ("House"). . The expression "like chopping a tree" means that through two zodiac zones in the Yin zone there is a section of the firmament "Simu" (lit. "chopping a tree"). This section corresponds to the 1st year of the Jupiter cycle called She-ti-ge (Sima Qian, 1986, vol. IV, p. 423).

44 Indicates the 5th year of the Tu-wei Dun-tsang calendar, corresponding to YY 5 Xu and the constellation Yu-lin ("Forest of Feathers"), or Yu-lin tientjun ("Heavenly troops as a forest of feathers"), a cluster of 45 stars scattered between 5° and 30° south declination. At the same time, the name can be understood as "The Fifth Mountain" - GG 5 Xu. Its coordinates are determined by the positions: "under it-water [- north], above it - rain" [the upper part of YY 5 is the sign "rain"], which makes sense: "to the north under it, Yu-lin is the constellation Leizhen ("Thunder and Lightning"), which " sows drops rain". The phrase: "many snakes fu and worms" refers to GG 24 Fu - "Rebirth". The 24th year under the cyclic signs din-hai (4-12) is fixed by the Anti-Jupiter position under the sign hai, when a new round of the 12-year cycle of Jupiter begins. The constellation Yu-lin is probably mentioned here as a metaphor for the endless series of revolutions of Jupiter in space.

45 Describes a site called Tsao fu ("Father Tsao "or" Creator Father") (0-28). Its location: "to the west - the 5th square", i.e. through the five zodiac zones to the west of the constellations Liu ("Willow") or Jing ("Well").

46 The name Juyu is made up of the words ju ("phrase", "sentence") and yu ("the remainder"). Translates as "truncated / unspoken phrase". Most likely, this space is YY 58 Dui. The" name " of the Dui hexagram is written as the word sho ("to speak"), but without the key "speech". Although the constellation of Bei Dou had the function of "speaking", other planets also showed signs to people. "Unspoken phrase" probably means the ambiguity of the omen. In the text to YY58, a "floating star" is mentioned, this is the star Xin ("Heart" or "Trust") - the 1st star of the Bucket, and Venus-"Great Boon".

47 The name of Mount Fuyu includes the "name" of GG 61 Zhong Fu (lit. "Floating in the middle"). The word yu ("jade") - a homonym for the number 5-can refer to the 5th star of Bei Dou Yu-heng, which lies in the 6th zodiac zone of si (it is also called ji or ze). The name of the place Jiuqu is written as "place" or "district" of the sixth zodiac zone, while only part of the hieroglyph is taken from the word tse. "Earth GG 8 Bi" is the constellation Fu ("Helper"), it is located 12° from the middle star of the Biao Pen (Sima Qian, 1986, vol. IV, p. 433).

48 The coordinates of the plot- "it looks like a tiger with a bull's tail" - indicate that this is a space whose extreme boundary is defined by the 9th zodiac constellation Nu ("Bull"), while the beginning of the plot lies in the zodiac zone under the 3rd cyclic sign yin, the symbol of which is "tiger". Since the word zhu ("how") also means the number 2, the general meaning of the phrase is: "through two zodiac zones lies the zone whose symbol is "tiger", it ends where the constellation Nu ("Bull") is located."

49 "Pig", "boar" - a symbol of the 4th zodiac constellation Shi ("House") and at the same time a symbol of the 12th zodiac zone hai. The phrase: "... makes a sound similar to a dog barking "indicates the area preceding it, under the 11th xu sign, whose symbol is "dog". The text to YY 61 Zhong Fu mentions "fish" - " fish of the 12th month of hai "(in the usual version- "month of the boar"), so Jupiter's position in the north is indicated. YY 61 Zhong Fu may be related to the Tianfu constellation, whose" name " is lit. it means: "The celestial constellation where Jupiter is under its first cyclical sign", but this does not mean the 1st cyclical sign of the Tzu calendar, but the chou sign, from which Jupiter begins its movement. Zhao City waters. Zhaoyao, it marks the zodiac zone of chou in longitude, and Jupiter emerges from these "waters".

50 Refers to the constellation of Bei Dou: its square bucket and Biao handle of three stars. The word cheng from the name of the mountain, in addition to the meaning of "perfect", has the meaning of "ninth" according to the Jianchu numeral system. The constellation of Bei Dou is sometimes called "nine-star", as it is complemented by two more stars. In the Book of Changes, the word cheng means "perfect nine-star constellation Bei Dou". The coordinates of the constellation ("above-below") are indicated according to the rules of the hexagram that fixes the stars of the "Central Palace" and Bei Dou, i.e. its position in longitude and latitude.

51 The waters of Zhu coming from the sea. Fan ("House") (meridian 16), flow in the direction of the "spoon-ladle", that is, to the constellation Gui ("Turtle"). Gui is located in the square Tiantan ("Heavenly Altar") (18h-16h; 40°-60°), consists of four stars, like a bucket, and three stars of the handle Chu ("Pest"). "Pig" is a symbol of the 12th month of hai. The number 12 is an indication of the year of Jupiter under the sign chou Chi-fen-jo. The constellation Gui is located within meridians 18-16.

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Guiji is a large cluster of stars in the constellation of Wei ("Stomach"). In this case, the word shi ("stone") should be understood as a "square" formed by latitude and longitude coordinates. "Fu stone" is written as a combined spelling of the combination yu-fu (yu - "jade", fu - "father"). It is possible that the constellation of Guiji records the third transition of Jupiter to the 12-year cycle (12+12+12), which corresponds to YY 36 Min-i "Clarification/illumination of the tribes and". The time-space of "8 tribesand"defined as 27, i.e. it is a period that lies outside the cycle(2). The name "Accumulation of hay" (otherwise - a stack, a pile) conveys the image of a hill.

53 The name " Waters of Chow "is decoded as" waters of the dog lunar month", in other words, the month whose zodiac symbol is"dog". This is a month under the sign of Xu, the 11th lunar month corresponding to the 9th year of the Jupiter cycle. If you draw a diagonal from the Bucket to the east on the map, then the end of the diagonal will rest on the constellation Gougo ("Kingdom of the Dog") (20 ; - 25°). Its position corresponds to the zodiac symbol of the 11th month - "dog". The commentator suggests reading the nie chou sign ("smelly"), and jue ("erode", "spill"), emphasizing that this is "water".

54 Kua [ or Kua-fu] is a mythological character descended from Yan-di ("Fire Emperor"), a deity of the south. Kua-fu competed in running with the Sun, himself being the mythological counterpart of Anti-Jupiter ("the Sun"). Kua-fu died of thirst before catching up with the Sun. The plot is not defined by the position of Jupiter-Anti-Jupiter, but is marked by Bay Dou, i.e. by the corresponding zodiac constellation and the Bay Dou star. This is indicated by the "waters of Chou" or " Waters of Xiu "(lit. "The Waters of the Xu Star"). Most likely, the site is marked by the third star of Bei Dou, one of the pseudonyms of which is Xiu ("Correcting") (see the commentary to the" Book of Changes ""Si ci Zhuan"). The word xiu in the combination " Xiu waters "is written with a sign denoting" bromine", which once again indicates the artificiality of the name of the stream. The "Muddy Fields" ridge is a metaphorical image of the Tiantian constellation ("Sky Field") lying on this diagonal.

55 Constellation Pu ("Servant") - in the center of Tienshi ("Sky Market") (18h-16h; 0°+20°). The passage mentions the constellation of the central part of the sky Gouchen ("Hook"), located vertically with the constellation Pu. Reading "mountain" as " go " caused confusion among commentators, who noted that there are many "false signs"in the monument. The constellation is located almost at the zenith of the sky, occupying a line above the fifth parallel. The site is located outside the ecliptic, so there is no Jupiter there - they do not mark zodiac zones and seasons by zodiac constellations.

56 Not far from the constellation Fan ("Home") are the constellations West and East Xian. The constellation Xianyin, or Xianchi ("Western Xian") [see: Sima Qian, 1986, vol. IV, p. 426], can be encoded as "Xian under the sign of Yin", since yin is a symbol of the west. "Name" /the name of the constellation Xianyin translates as " Xian-female hypostasis (yin)", since the word yin has the meaning: "dark"," shameful","self-made". Here it is an analog of the female reproductive organ, while yang ("yang instrument") is an analog of the male reproductive organ. Hence, yin is the symbol of the West, yang is the symbol of the East, and the "eastern master" is the beloved, the lover. From this symbolism, a special social function of the constellation Xianyin was born - to protect the heir from debauchery [Xing Jing, B. G., p. 43].

57 We are not talking about a constellation that would mark the decade or the 10th year of the cycle, although the word "xun "(without the key "water") means "ten days" or "decade". The name of the mountain "Decadnaya" hardly indicates a decade, since it is indicated that it is 400 li from the previous site. The key " water "only makes you associate this name with the 10th zodiac zone under the sign of yu and that part of the northern ecliptic that lies below Chi-dao and is marked as" sea","water". Under the 9th constellation Nu ("Bull") there is a square called Mose (20h-21h; -20°-25°), its outline includes the sign "ram". But "ram" is also the zodiac symbol of the zone under the sign of Wei. The symbol "white ram" also marks the square in which the 17th constellation of Wei ("Stomach") is inscribed. The fact that this particular zodiac "ram" is meant, located two zodiac zones from the first "ram", is indicated by its sign - "it has no mouth". This is a hint that the constellation Quanshe ("Coiled Tongue") is located nearby, in the same square. The constellation and the indicated square are located in the west, whose symbol is "gold", and on the fifth parallel, whose symbolic counterpart is "jade" (yu - 5th tone).

58 Yan Lake-the area corresponding to the 1st year of Jupiter Yan-feng, the 31st year of the calendar and YY 31 Xian. In the same area, Jupiter accelerates its movement (the word in in in the name biin means "accelerated movement of the planet") and" accelerates " due to calendar time. The "boundary waters" that mark the zodiac zone under the sign of Y also mark the 8th year of the Jupiter cycle. This is indicated by the word bi. The hexagram GG 8 Bi is included in the spelling of the word bi, but the sign "grass" is written on top, therefore, it can be read as "the position of Anti-Jupiter in the 8th year" [Jupiter under the sign y]. This refers to the part of the ecliptic from the 10th zodiac zone yu to the zone under the sign of zi, where the calendar year is marked under the cyclic signs jia-wu. This section marks the "exhaustion of the Path" and the upcoming end of the cycle.

59 We are talking about the 8th zodiac constellation Dou ("Dipper"), as if repeating the image of Bay Dou ("Northern Dipper"), hence its ironic" name " - "Called a Spoon". Dou is the 1st constellation of the "Northern Palace". The location of the planet in this constellation is determined by the word catalpa, written as " tree under the 8th sign of xin "(in the system of "sky towers") and "tree under the 2nd sign of chou", whose symbol is "cow" or "bull". Thus, two zodiac zones are indicated: the 8th constellation of Dow and the 9th constellation of Nu ("Bull"). Meaning of the word catalpa: "When Jupiter is in the 8th zodiac zone under the sign of xin, Anti-Jupiter is under the sign of chou", the 38th year of Xin-chou. The name of the constellation Dow ("Ladle") refers to YY38, which is on the map of-

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It is called Kui, as is the star Kui ("Bucket") of the constellation Bay Dou. The Xing-ji section of the sky corresponds to the 1st year of the Jupiter cycle. This year it passes the Dow constellation ("Ladle") and Qian-niu ("Ox breeder").

60 Waters of Pan mark the position of the constellation Fan ("House") (the word pan is inscribed with the sign fan - "house"). Fang - the 4th zodiac constellation and the 4th constellation of the "Eastern Palace" marks meridian 16. The Xing-ji section corresponds to the "Land of Jingzhou" section.

61 "Walls" of the Tianshi configuration ("Heavenly Market") are made up of stars bearing the names of the kingdoms: Chu, Wei, Yan, etc. The name of the mountain warns about this - "Local U", i.e., as if not "the true kingdom of U".

62 "Deer" - zodiac symbol of the constellation Zhang ("Bow and arrow") (meridian 10 h). "Deer waters" - the boundary marking the space from the constellation Zhang to the constellation Fang. This space was probably marked according to the phase of the minor moon, and perhaps it was also perceived as a" shoal "of the Milky Way, where" sand and stone " is a metaphor for the large and small stars of the Milky Way. The word "stone" simultaneously denotes a measure of the area of tribute. The zodiac image of the "eagle" area lies on the same parallel as the kingdom of Zhou in the Tianshi constellation. Hence, apparently, the zodiac image of the "eagle" was born, its "name" is made up of the word zhui ("short - tailed bird") and zhou-the name of the kingdom of Zhou. The "horns" of the celestial image evoke an association with the constellation Jue ("Horn") - the 1st constellation from which the Jupiter cycle begins. The "cry of a newly born baby" symbolizes the beginning of a cycle. "Water" is a symbol of the north and the element of Mercury. It is possible that the described "eagle image" is the image of Mercury. He is offered the same sacrifices as the constellation Bei Dou.

63 The star Qi Wu ("Black Kingdom of Wu") is located in the right branch of the Tianshi, it already belongs to the "Northern Palace" of the firmament (the color of the north is black).

64 "The second book of the Southern Mountains" describes the area under the 7th y sign.

65 The star Qi Wu ("Black Kingdom of Wu") lies near the star Donghai in the right branch of the Tianshi.

66 The expression "dragon torsos and bird heads" means: "the beginning [of the plot] is where the symbol is 'bird', the constellations are located in the eastern sector, whose symbol is 'dragon'. Perhaps the coordinates encoded here should be interpreted more broadly: "the beginning of the zodiac is in the" Southern Palace "(symbol - "bird"), and it is located in the " Eastern Palace "(symbol - "dragon")."

67 Here the highest "southern" point of the measuring triangle corresponding to the "Southern Mountains" is called the North Star, because it is said that "below" is only the north, whose symbol is "water".

68 The tao sign from the name of the conditional mountain means "offering sacrifices to the Longevity deity Shou-sin". Shou-xing is a summer section of the sky that includes the constellations Liu ("Willow") and Xing ("Star"), which Jupiter passes in the 3rd year of its cycle. The same space corresponds to the 10th year of the Jupiter cycle (Sima Qian, 1986, p. 466). The second sign in the name of Mount Tao-guo means "error". Meaning of the name: incorrect coordinates. According to the logic of the text, the 3rd book should describe the space under the 8th wei sign [SSW 3 / 4W], the last month of summer. This space corresponds to the 6th year of Jupiter Xie-chia (Anti-Jupiter - under the 8th sign of wei, Jupiter - under the 9th sign of shen). The main constellation of the zone is the zodiac constellation Shen ("Merit") - Orion. In the Book of Changes, the space under the y sign is associated with YY 28 Yes ("Miscalculation of the Great Constellation Dou"), from YY 52 Gen, from YY 6 Sun ("Litigation"), since the hexagram numbers are the years of Jupiter's revolution. The name of the conditional mountain includes landmarks of the constellation. Shou-xing ("Longevity Star") (5th zodiac zone Chen, corresponding to the 3rd year) and YY 28 Da-go (7th zodiac zone wu, corresponding to the 5th year of Jupiter). Perhaps the meaning of this fragment is an indication of a "decoy" containing obviously incorrect information, since the specified coordinates are not related to the area under the Wei sign. An indication of the ordinal number of the year of the described space is contained in the landmarks of the Shou-xing section: this is the 3rd year of Jupiter in the 5th zone, 3 is the cyclic sign of bin and 5 is the cyclic sign of Chen. Hence, this is the 53rd year of the bing Chen calendar. The meaning of the title: "it is a mistake to count the plot of Dao-guo according to the"Longevity Star"." Coordinates of the plot: "a lot of gold and jade (yu)" - " to the west ("gold") from the constellation Liu ("Willow")" (the word yu in the meaning of "5th tone of the scale" is synonymous with liu, which also means "willow"). The coordinates contain the same deceptive meaning: "a lot of buffaloes, rhinos, elephants." These coordinates correspond to the position of Jupiter in the 3rd year, when it is under the sign of high. Relevant constellations: Nu ("Bull", "Buffalo"), GG 62 Xiao-guo "Miscalculation of the Small constellation Dou", GG 52 Dui (image - "rhinoceros"). The word xiang ("elephant"), placed at the end of the list ("buffalo, rhino, elephant"), can be understood as an indication of" decoy", since the word xiang ("elephant") sounds like xiang ("similar") and encodes the number 6. Then the meaning of the phrase: "through 6 zodiac zones from the constellation of Nu ("Bull") and GG 58 Dui to the east - the constellation of Liu ("Willow")".

69 The image of the" bird " described in this passage may refer to the constellation Liu ("Willow"), as well as to Venus, whose name is "Owl". In the preamble of GG 62 Xiao-guo, " Miscalculation of the Minor Constellation (Nan Dou)", it says: "... sacrifices are offered. Direction to the "Authentic" [Anti-Jupiter planet]. He does a small thing. Nan Dou]. Don't use a Large one. From the "flying bird" [nyao bird is another name]. Liu] only the sound remains. They do not measure constellations that are located in the center of the sky " [Zhou Yi..., 1993, p. 1061]. But if in this situation the sequence of Jupiter's motion is disrupted, then Jupiter appears in the constellation Gan ("Neck") [Sima Qian, 1986, p. 123], whose symbol is the dragon jiao. The" name "of the zodiac image -" Similar to the protractor " refers either to the 3rd star Bei Dou-Ji ("Protractor"), or to YY 28 Da-go ("Miscalculation of the Large Constellation Dou"), where the word from the "name" of the zodiac qu is mentioned. The text to GG 28 says: "The Noble Lord-

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under the sign of the Biao Handle, it is determined by itself - they do not take measurements according to the "Protractor"" [I ching..., 1997, p. 338]. "The Face of a Person" once again reminds that the constellation "faces" towards Bei Dou. The" three legs " of the bird encode another constellation, also called Nyao ("Bird"), which is located just three "steps" from the constellation Gan (three zodiac zones) - this is the constellation Liu ("Willow"), or "Bird".

70 Yin Waters (written as TG Gen with the key "water") refer to YG 52 Gen and the 52nd year of I-mao. The middle of the section - the 42nd year-is a situation when the " Noble Lord "(Pen Biao) "because of hesitation did not come to his position." In this situation, the Biao pen should mark the space in the area of the constellation Gan ("Neck") (symbol "dragon jiao"), but the marking of the year of Jupiter She-ti-ge (cyclic signs of yin-chou) - on the line of the yin zone (symbol - "tiger").

71 Signs of the zodiac - "body of a fish" - indicate that the site is located not in the space of "mountains", but in the space of" sea", below the Chi-dao (equator). The meaning of the phrase "snake tail": "ends in the 6th zodiac zone of si, whose symbol is "snake"". Yuanyang ("lovebirds") - a metaphor for the 32nd, 42nd and 52nd years; the" voice-sound " of ducks symbolizes the summer sky, on which the years are encoded under the cyclic signs I-wei (32), I-si (42) and I-mao (52).

72 The phrase "diseases" refers to the" ailments " of planets and constellations, not people. The word zhi ("hemorrhoid"), written as "hemorrhoid of the 6th month", ancient astronomers called the behavior of Bei Dou during the summer period, when his Pen Biao (yang) is aimed directly at the south. South is encoded by the male symbol yang, the combination yang-yang can be interpreted as "sodomy", and " hemorrhoids"- its usual consequence.

73 Dan Waters ("Cinnabar") - part of the Milky Way, adjacent to the borders of the Tienshi constellation. The word dan ("cinnabar") is synonymous with the word chi ("red"), in this context we are talking about the 12th year of Jupiter Chi-fen-jo (month under the sign of hai), the same epithet-dan - refers to the constellation Tianshi, which is called"Cinnabar Cave".

74 "Phoenix" - the name of the square of the sky that lies at the northwestern tip of the sky map (2h-0h; -40°-60°). But here we mean the symbol of the zodiac zone under the sign of yu - " chicken "(or"rooster"). Zodiac "rooster" (Anti-Jupiter position symbol) after a calendar cycle of 60 years (as indicated by the five symbolic colors of its plumage), it becomes a royal Phoenix. The group of stars that make up the Phoenix zodiac includes the Bay Dou stars, which are sometimes called by the same words that are inscribed on the Phoenix. For example, the 1st star of the Bucket Xin ("Heart") is called" Trust "(xin), and the" name"of the last star of the Handle Biao Yao-guang ("Shimmering Radiance") is changed to" Humanity " (ren).

75 The name of Mount Fashuang copies the names of the stars of Bei Dou: the second star of the Biao Pen is called Kai-yang ("Opening the light"), and the fifth star of the constellation - Heng ("Yardstick") is sometimes called "speech". Most likely, this refers to the constellation Quanshe ("Folded Tongue"), which, although it is a language, does not have the function of Bei Dou - "verb".

76 Site location: from the north ("water") to the west ("white"), i.e. the area under the sign of Shen (symbol "monkey") or WNW. The "Third Book of the Southern Mountains" describes the space under the 8th sign of Wei, corresponding to the 6th year of the Xie-chia Jupiter cycle (Anti-Jupiter under the sign of Wei, Jupiter under the 9th sign of Shen). When Jupiter occupies the same space, it will be the 7th year of the Tung-tan cycle (Jupiter under the sign of Wei, Anti-Jupiter under the sign of Shen). The waters of Fan mark meridian 4, after which all the meridians marking longitudes: 2h, 0h, 22h, 20h, 18h, up to the constellation Donghai ("East Sea"), lie below Chi-dao (equator) and belong to the "water expanses".

77 Constellation Mao ("Duck's nest", other names: Mao-tou ("Shaggy head"), Liu-hsiu ("Accumulation"). Yu-i - the area between the constellations And ("Wing") and Gui ("Spirits"). "Winds" are the parts of the sky that correspond to trigrams, i.e. they are precisely tied to the cardinal directions. Here is the "wind of the 10th moon"-Kaifeng.

78 The area where the zodiac zone is not marked is the center of the sky, which is considered "south", so there is no "water", i.e. there is "no north".

79 This may be the constellation Tai-yanshou (the word Tai-yang). means "Sun"). The symbol "water" is the planet Mercury.

80 The word Guan from the name of the mountain is inscribed with the sign GG 20 Guan. The "Book of Changes" says: "GG 20 Guan is the path of the deities of heaven", " where GG 20 Guan, there the "I" is born", "where GG 20 Guan ,the" I "is born, moving back and forth" [Zhou Yi..., 1993, p. 1025]. "I" - Jupiter in the zodiac zone under the sign of Yu. This is the 8th year of the Jupiter cycle, it is called Tso-vo, the combination of tso vo sounds like " creating (tso) himself (vo)", although the word vo in the cycle name is written in a different hieroglyph.

81 The Yeji ("Wild Rooster") constellation is located in the Shen zodiac zone near the Shen ("Merit") constellation in the Chunho ("Quail under the Sign of Fire") area. "Rooster" is the symbol of the month under the sign yu. This refers to the 8th year of Jupiter: Anti-Jupiter under the sign of y, Jupiter under the sign of y. According to commentator Guo Pu, the "danhu sand" is the "stones of the kingdoms of Ba and Yue", i.e. the square where the star Ba is located in the left branch of the Tianshi constellation, and the stars Wu and Yue in the right branch of the same Tianshi configuration. The Tianshi constellation is sometimes called the "Cinnabar Cave". "Pig" is an image of the zodiac zone under the sign of Xu. Boar's bristle is a metaphor for the beginning of the month under the sign of hai, here we mean the 10th month under the sign of yu. Y-y are the coordinates of the 5th year of Jupiter (y - and 5, and "fish") and the 8th year (y-y), as indicated by the images of two fish.

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82 The "hill of orders" is Mars, as it is said: "much fire" (the element of Mars is fire). "TNW wind" - northeast, the expression "originates from here" should be understood as "the northeast begins here". Sima Qian points out that this is a section of the Ji constellations ("Basket"), Wei ("Tail"), Xin ("Heart"), Fang ("House") [Sima Qian, 1986, vol.IV, p. 103].

83 Site location: northwest (symbol - "gold and jade"), " east "(symbol - "green stone hu"), i.e. the area from northwest to northeast. Jupiter in this area glitters with a reddish tinge. As noted by Sima Qian, this is Jupiter of the 4th year under the sign of xu (Anti-Jupiter under the 6th sign of si) [Sima Qian, 1986, vol. IV, p. 122]. The word "molasses" is written with the sign "embryo", which indicates the period preceding the appearance of the baby. The word tzu ("baby") is the designation of the 1st month under the cyclic sign tzu. Jupiter under the 2nd cyclic sign of chou is sometimes called gan ("sweet"). The word gan is spelled very similar to the chow sign. The motif of "molasses" is repeated in the epithet "sweet" Jupiter. Jupiter is located on the winter part of the ecliptic, this is indicated by the" name "of the deity of this area - "white, snowy, winter gnomon", "winter Shadow". These are the months under the sign of hai or xu - the 3rd and 4th years of the Jupiter cycle.

84 The reference to "blood jade" may be alluding to the rules for offering blood sacrifices to Nan Dou ("Southern Dou").

85 Emperor Yu is associated with the center of the firmament - the North Star, the constellation Wenchang ("Prosperity of literature") and is his "bag for books and brushes". The Book of Stars (Xing Jing) says: "The seven-star constellation Wenchang, which is very similar to the half moon disk, lies in front of the Bei Dou Bucket. Here is the heavenly council, which manages the records of the affairs of the Middle Kingdom. Six of its stars are called gui-gnomon " (Shin Jing, BG21).

86 Two different-sex Phoenixes, a male and a female, can be perceived as a symbol of Nan Dou (its handle is "male" and its Bucket is "female"). The "waters of the Left" [planet] - i.e., the planet whose path "goes to the left" - is an Anti-Jupiter moving to the east.

87 The expression "the body of a dragon and the face of a Man" can be understood as "constellations arranged in a square, whose symbol is "dragon" (20h-14h), they are facing Bei Dou - "Man". On the map, the Dragon section covers part of the left branch of the Purple Palace Wall.

88 The name of the spirit of the constellation Wenchang included the word "blood gnomon", apparently, this is an echo of the rules of offering sacrifices to Nan Dou ("Southern Dou").

89 In the name of the most extreme in the southwest conditional kingdom of Jiexiong, the first character jie means "end", "stop", the second syllable-xiong (lit. "breast") sounds the same as the word xiong ("full moon"), this connection is emphasized in the xiong character itself, where the" breast "sign is inscribed with the"full moon" sign. The full moon falls on the 16th - 18th day. About 16-18 stars in the Tianyuan configuration. Starting from this segment, no measurements are made for Bay Doe, only the positions of Jupiter are used.

90 Two images are named here: the symbol of the south-Zhu-niao ("Red Bird"), the southern quarter of the firmament before YY 8 Bi, and the constellation I ("Wing"). From the syllables bi-i, the "name" of the bird Bii is formed. These two "birds" mark the southeast and southwest with their wings. In the mythological context, Biinyao is an image of a single bird with two pairs of wings on either side of the body, which does not correspond to the text.

91 " Realms "(go) are defined as the sites of Jupiter that are delineated by the boundaries. The dictionary "Erya" says that this is the name of the spaces occupied by the planet according to the system of "celestial veshek" (tien gan) [Erya..., 1999, p.124], which are perceived as "heavenly gates". In the space of this "sea" there are 13 "kingdoms". If each "kingdom" corresponds to a constellation, i.e. if there are 28 zodiac constellations in the entire Huang Dao, then there should be 14 of them in the space of half a year. The kingdom of Yumin ("Feathered People") corresponds to the constellation Yi ("Wing"), which lies in the square of Changshe ("Long Snake"), which is why those people have "long heads" and " long chins."

92 There are 16 zodiac constellations located in the "South Sea" space, starting from the 28th constellation Zhen ("Wagon") up to the 13th constellation Shi ("House"), each of them has its own deity. Their "territory" is one lunar month in 27 or 28 days, so they stand close together - "shoulder to shoulder". The lunar months were measured as spatial triangles with a vertex on the Pole Star of the Small [xiao] constellation Dou, which is called "Sovereign-Emperor" here.

93 "Bird" is an Anti-Jupiter that has settled in the zodiac constellation. The" name " of the bird is Bifan (lit. "square of the constellation Bi - "Pitchfork"") contains an indication of the 19th constellation Bi, which lies in space under the sign of Wei. This is the space of the 6th year of Jupiter Xie-chia (Jupiter under the 9th sign of shen). One leg of the" bird " assumes the space of one season - a period of 14 days. The image of a "bird" on two legs corresponds to the month, on three-may indicate the three zodiac zones that Jupiter-the" bird " must pass.

94 The constellation Mao ("Duck's Nest"), also known as Huantou ("Shaggy Head"), is located in the southwest, which is emphasized by its second name - Huanzhu ("Red Shaggy Head"). The contours of this constellation are not written out in the form of a square, the mention of the square-square of the constellation Mao, where the deity catches fish, is most likely a metaphor emphasizing the location of the constellation Mao: it is located in the space that is considered to be Chun-shou ("quail's head"), the "beak" of the bird deity with which it catches fish, located where the "sea" begins, the word "fish" is synonymous with the word "sea".

95 In the area under the 4th cyclic sign of Mao is the Da-ho area ("Big Lights"), it lies below, i.e. to the north, from the constellation I ("Wing"), so" to the south " means to the north. Black is a symbol of the north.

page 161

96 Perhaps this tree is a symbolic image of the 21st constellation Shen ("Merit") - Orion, the arrangement of the stars of which is given the appearance of a tree or pole, above which three circles are drawn, made up in a triangle. "Trees" were usually marked for large periods of the calendar cycle, and " trees "could have a different number of branches or" fruits " on them. "Fruits" corresponded to years, they could be 12 or 19. The phrase "...and in appearance like a cypress "can be read:" through two zodiac zones - the point of the west", since the word "cypress" is written in the signs mu ("tree") and bai ("white" - the symbol of the west). Two more zodiac zones from the point of the west - the section of the seasons " Big " and "Small snow".

97 The word miao in the name of the kingdom of Sanmiago has two meanings: "miao people" and "field". In the latter sense, it is found in the phrase: "...in the summer, sacrifices are made to ward off harm from the fields." According to the Erya dictionary, miao here means green fields (Erya..., 1999, p. 184). The hieroglyph "field" (tien) is a square divided into four parts, each of which is a symbol of the time of year. Then the entire "field" sign is a symbol of the year, and "three fields" is already three years old, or even 12 years if one "field" is counted for four years. Hence the logical mention of Chishui ("Red waters") as an analog of the 12th year of Jupiter Chi-fen-jo. However, the space indicated is not the 12th year of Jupiter (under the signs of chow-yin), but the area under the 4th sign of Mao. The name of the kingdom of Sanmao ("Three Feathers") probably refers to the number 33, since if one cycle when Jupiter is under the sign of Mao is the 11th year of Jupiter, then "three mao" is the 33 years of the Jupiter cycle corresponding to the 9th year under the motto Yan-mao.

98 On the map of the southern sector of the firmament, a configuration in the form of a step cascade is indicated-this is Chang-she ("Long Snake"), coordinates: 8 h-16 h; - 15° - 35°. Next to the Qiangshi configuration ("Arrow Fired") [-40° - 20°; 8 h-6 h]. Yellow is a symbol of the south-west, the beginning of a golden autumn.

99 The image of birds wounded by an arrow is the basis of the description of the appearance of this strange people. We are talking about the constellation Yi ("Wing"), next to which is the constellation Zhang ("Bow"). In the previous text, they hit snakes with arrows, here they hit birds with arrows, which already speaks of other constellations. Yi and Zhang are zodiac constellations that mark the end of the Jupiter cycle. All the zodiac zones passed by him and the Bay Dou constellation seem to be strung together and become like lined-up birds on one string, in one bundle. This is a metaphor for the year and the 12-year cycle of Jupiter. The image of strung birds reminds one of the stories of Baron Munchausen. Perhaps this is a retelling of a worldwide folklore motif that goes back to ancient calendar astronomy.

100 Refers to a square (15-14) with the constellations Right She-ti and Left She-ti, corresponding to the zodiac zones of chow and yin, where the planets diverge in different directions, i.e. their paths cross. Another possible association is that the constellation Shen ("Merit") is sometimes called "Shoulders and Legs".

101 Hieroglyphic writing of the combination of zhishe (letters. ""language" according to the system of earth branches") can be read as "the constellation of Bei Dou -" Mouth and Tongue " by "earth branches"" [4 ; +40°].

Kunlun, 102 commonly referred to as" Kunlun Hill", the dwelling place of the lady of the west Xiwanmu, is in the west. The word can be understood as the space up to the constellation Xu ("Void"), which is in the north. Xu consists of two stars, which does not give reason to consider the expression sifang (lit. "four squares") for the shape of the constellation in the form of a square, since the word fan itself already means" square", i.e."four sides forming a square". The expression can be understood as the 4th square, meaning that there is a space equal to one square of the area (the space of one zodiac constellation), there are two squares - a double measure, and there is a quadruple measure of space - "four squares". "Four squares" is 4 - > 16 hexagrams of the Book of Changes, one quarter of its cycle of 64 hexagrams.

103 Archer Yi, a mythical character usually depicted with a bow and arrow , is a personification of the star Biao Pen. One of his ten feats is defeating the Jiochi monster [the stellar counterpart is a group of Mao ("Axe") or Zhaoyao ("Wavering"), Dun ("Shield"), or Tian Feng ("Heavenly Point")stars]. The battle with him took place in the Shou-xing ("Longevity Star") area, i.e., in the space below the 5th cyclic chen icon. Wild fields - remote areas from the conditional kingdom and its capital. The victory of the shooter over the monsters is an allegory of the fact that he "shot back" here, i.e. "worked out" the required number of measurements in his space. Therefore, the arrow in his hands is not so much a weapon, although one of the names of the Handle Biao - wu ("warrior"), as a means of measuring space. The arrow is a metaphor for the diagonal of that conceivable square that appears in the firmament as the time and space of the zodiac zone. On Nasi's hand-drawn calendars, there is an image of a snake-like character with an arrow in his hands and an image of the arrow itself in feathers. In one drawing, an anthropomorphic character launches an arrow in the direction of the north after a galloping horse in apples (the image of Anti-Jupiter), which belches a dog (the zodiac image of the 11th month under the cyclic sign Xu) [The Art of Naxi Dongba Culture, 1992, p. 33, 118]. Next to it is a huge arrow, feathered with a dozen feathers, on each of which - three vertical lines - the symbol of the three stars of the Biao Pen. This arrow (Biao Handle) marks the space from 315° of the ecliptic to 195° inclusive (Golygina, 2003, p. 77). The area from 210° to 300° is not marked according to Bay Dou, probably because it is winter (the "Big Cold" season and other winter seasons), when it is impossible to use the sundial and, accordingly, the positions of Tai-sui ("Sun") according to Bay Dou are not determined. Alternate positions of Jupiter are used.

104 The word san ("three") it can be perceived as a synonym for the word yin (3rd cyclic sign), i.e. it is Anti-Jupiter in the 3rd zodiac zone. The Word Show ("head") has the meaning "beginning" here, so the combination sanshou translates as "begins in the 3rd zodiac zone". Anti-Jupiter is Bay Doe's stand-in.

page 162

105 Among the ancient pictographic images, there is an image of a man with two heads, i.e. in the image of the constellation Bei Dou- "Man", two heads are combined - the Bucket's own head and the head of the Handle Biao, since this constellation has always been perceived as two independent parts. But the hero of this passage has "three heads", and this may mean that both Anti-Jupiter and Bay Dou are meant - "The Man with two heads", which are located in the 3rd zodiac zone and begin their movement there. The" three heads "of the character allow us to interpret this image as an analogue of the three cycles of Jupiter, which began from the zodiac zone of yin, i.e. it is like" three beginnings of Jupiter cycles " - 12 years each. The time associated with this area is 36 years (12 x 3), or even 48, if you consider that "multiply by three" in Chinese always means the formula "multiply by three and add the same number", i.e. "multiply by four". In fact, this argument is consistent with the fact that Kunlun is often referred to as a "hill" (qiu). "Hill" as a space, according to "Erya", has a "tripled value", i.e. in reality - quadrupled.

106 For the first time, among all the creatures mentioned in the Book of Mountains and Seas, there are simply people who make sacrifices by cooking them on fire. In China, there is an opinion that the invention of a way to cook food on fire is one of the seven wonders of national cooking, along with rice, soy sauce, vegetable oil, tea, etc. Cooking owed its origin precisely to the rite and preparation of sacrifices. Summer offerings were prepared on the fire, so that the deities could smell their scents rising into the sky along with the smoke of the fire.

107 Among the calendar symbols of the Nasi people of southern China, there is an image of a man with outstretched arms, as if showing how wide his kingdom is-the zodiac zone. Maybe the function of long hands in this text is similar. The new account of the cycle for "seas" also assumed an increase in the basic unit of measurement of space. If the images of 28 God-men symbolizing 28 zodiac constellations or 28 days of the same month are "human figures standing shoulder to shoulder", i.e. without outstretched arms, then long, spread arms suggest an increase in the space that the deity is symbolically able to demonstrate. Moreover, the "long-armed" ones "catch fish", i.e. they pull out of the "sea of time" a fish - a symbol of the cycle, although they could do something else, for example, hunt foxes. In the text of the Book of Mountains and Seas, every image is a symbol.

108 The conditional mountain marks the area designated as "dm tribes". Here it corresponds to the south. Although according to the scheme specified in the dictionary "Erya"," south Sea "is symbolically designated as " eight tribes of Man". Di-or "the five tribes of dm" - is the space corresponding to the north. Perhaps the astrologer, leading a story about the "seas" in accordance with the ancient map of the firmament, suggested turning through the pole of the North Star to the northern part of the firmament, as indicated by the "bears" he named-markers of the constellation Bei Dou, which is the "shoulder blades" of the constellation Xun ("Bear"), and the constellation Nan Dow. Among the eight coordinate points of space, YY is 30 Li, or the constellation Li-gong [0 h-22 h; +40+20], which is in the northwest, and the square below is the square of Feim ("Flying Horse") and the constellation Grave Fung [0°; 18 h]. Perhaps this is the "grave of Yao", the two stars of the constellation lie at 0°, which shows the exhaustion of the cycle marked as the "Yao cycle". "Forest" (lin, lin-zhong) is the 8th tone of a 12-step chromatic scale. In this case, "forest" is a symbol for the number 8.

109 The deity of the south sea controls two dragons-Jupiter and Anti-Jupiter - in the area of the "south sea" entrusted to him, extending from southwest to southeast. The Ju-yun festival falls on the 15th day of the 7th moon. Zhu-yun (or Zhu-rong) is usually interpreted as the "god of fire" (Yanshina, 1977, p. 185), more precisely, he is the deity of the southern sky, whose symbol is "fire". Zhu-yun is a deity of the Zhou calendar cycle.

list of literature

Golygina K. I. Starry Sky and the Book of Changes, Moscow, 2003. Сыма Цянь. Istoricheskie zapiski [Historical Notes], Vol. IV, Moscow, 1984. Yuan Ke. Myths of ancient China, Moscow, 1987. Yanshina E. M. Catalog of mountains and Seas, Ed. 1-E. M., 1977.

Ye Shuxian, Su Bing, Zhen Zaishu. "Shanhai Jing" by dy wenhua xun zong (Interpretation of" Shanhai jing " in the aspect of culture). Vol. 1-2. Shanghai, 2004.

I ching so ying ("The Book of Changes" with an index). Beijing. 1997.

Shanhai jing (Book of Mountains and Seas). Shanghai, 1988.

Shanhai jing (Book of Mountains and Seas). Seoul, 1990.

Shanhai jing ji jie ("The Book of Mountains and Seas" with explanations and prefaces). Guangzhou, 1936.

Shanhai jing yu zhongguo wenhua ("Shanhai jing" and Chinese culture). Hubei, 1999.

Zhou yi da qidian (Large dictionary of "Zhou yi"). Beijing, 1993.

Erya zhu shu ("Erya" with comments). Beijing, 1999.

Xing jing (Book of Stars), b/g, b/m.

The art of Naxi Dongba Culture. Yunnan, 1992.

page 163

Application*

Chinese Star Map

* See the second part of the map on the next page.


page 164

Appendix (continued)


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