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This article offers a stratagem theory to explain the legal nature of the" non-binding principles " of investment regulation in APEC. Teleologically, it is based on the idea of systematic algorithms chosen to achieve the goals set, but practically it is significant because it allows us to understand the relative non-necessity of these principles. In the context of APEC, this relativity is expressed by the fact that the tactical goals of investment regulation may imply broad discretion in the application of these principles, while strategic goals may be incompatible with the absence of restrictions on such freedom.

As you know, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) unites countries with different levels of cultural, political, economic and legal development, and foreign policy structure (i.e., industrialized, developing, newly industrialized countries, as well as countries with economies in transition). According to the Bogor (Indonesia, November 1994), Osaka (Japan, November 1995) and Manila (Philippines, November 1996) Declarations, the main objective of such an association is to create a free trade and investment zone in the Asia - Pacific region by 2010-2020. From the point of view of the theoretical basis of the regional integration policy used in Western Europe, an Asian association of this kind can cause inconsistency in the integration process or slow down the coordination of a common platform within this organization. Moreover, at the Seattle Summit in 1993, it was suggested that APEC would never become a customs union like the EU, nor a free trade zone like NAFTA. If APEC becomes a free trade area, it will be a new form of free trade area.

Regarding the future issue of binding decisions, in particular on documents, principles and other acts adopted within the APEC framework, it was stated: first, APEC should develop towards acquiring the characteristics of a closed-type international regional organization with a binding nature of its decisions; second, APEC should remain a conference whose decisions are taken by the international community. they are not enforced. The majority of APEC member countries share the same view. This is the so-called Asian approach, which presupposes the existence of a" soft substance " of a consultative nature, allowing for relative freedom of interpretation of these decisions (documents, principles), voluntary implementation, and broad discretion in the application of these decisions [Kistanov, 1998, p.29]. Another group of participating countries, in particular the United States, believes that APEC should become a rigid block-type structure with clear institutional characteristics,

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requiring strict implementation of the adopted decisions (documents, principles) [Ivanov, 1999, p. 55].

The reconciliation of these opposing approaches was reflected in the adoption of the so-called APEC Non-Binding Investment Principles (The APEC Non-Binding Investment Principles) as the main unified and practical document for regulating foreign direct investment within APEC in 1994.

It should be taken into account when describing them that one of the reasons for the creation of APEC was that a number of countries in East and South-East Asia established strict protection barriers and measures and adopted anti-dumping agreements, which were faced by many countries that introduced their goods to the markets of these countries. For example, the United States faced tough protectionist barriers to the export of its cars, agricultural and food products, toys, alcoholic beverages, etc.So, in Thailand, customs duties reached 30 - 40% on imported goods, in Indonesia and the Philippines - about 20%. In Malaysia, the market for exporting cars was effectively closed. In China, textile products were subject to high duties, in the Philippines and Thailand, they were not allowed to invest capital in the service sector, etc. A long list of trade and investment restrictions could be found for each country, including Japan. On average, trade barriers in most countries (with the exception of Hong Kong and Singapore) added between 10 and 30% of the value of imported goods. In Japan, however, "hidden braking mechanisms" were estimated to generate between 30 and 100% of the added value. In addition, bilateral negotiations, negotiations within the WTO or based on the principles of the Uruguay Round (which provides for various compromises for its participants) did not solve the deficit problem. [Chhorn Prolyng, 2005, pp. 27-29]. Therefore, the adopted decisions/principles in the APEC framework, such as the "non-binding APEC Investment Principles", have the advantage of the "Asian approach". These principles, which relate to the regulation of foreign direct investment, are indeed "non-binding". Common ways to follow these principles are through individual and collective action plans for trade and investment liberalization.

Non-binding investment principles include the following::

1) transparency - "each of the participating countries is obliged to make open, accessible, transparent all laws, administrative acts and departmental instructions related to investments in its country";

2) non-discriminatory approach to donor countries - "each of the participating countries is obliged to provide investors of any APEC member with no less favorable treatment for the establishment, expansion and management of their investments than that granted to investors of any other APEC member country in similar circumstances, without prejudice to relevant international obligations and principles";

3) national treatment - "with exceptions provided for by domestic laws, regulations and regulations, each of the APEC member countries undertakes to provide foreign investors with treatment no less favorable for the establishment, expansion, management and protection of their investments than that granted to their own investors in similar circumstances";

4) Investment promotion - "each APEC member country is required to combine investment incentives with health, safety and environmental regulations";

5) minimization of restrictions - "the commitment of each of the APEC member countries to minimize investment-regulating requirements that restrict the growth / expansion of trade and investment";

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6) expropriation and compensation - " the obligation of each of the APEC member countries not to expropriate foreign investments or take other measures with similar consequences, except in cases when such measures are taken in the public interest, in accordance with the procedure established by the legislation of each member country and in accordance with the procedure established by the principles of international law, are not discriminatory and they are accompanied by the payment of prompt, adequate and effective compensation";

7) repatriation and convertibility - " each of the APEC member countries is obliged to ensure the free and unhindered transfer in any freely convertible currency of funds (funds) related to foreign investments, in particular profits, dividends, royalties, amounts paid in repayment of loans, amounts due to the investor in connection with the liquidation (full liquidation) of foreign investments. or partial) or sale of capital investments";

8) dispute resolution - " each of the APEC member countries recognizes that disputes arising in connection with foreign investment will or should be resolved promptly through consultations and negotiations between the disputing parties or, if disputes are not resolved in this way, they can be resolved through arbitration procedures in accordance with international obligations each participating country or through other arbitration procedures acceptable to both parties";

9) ensuring the exit and temporary stay of foreign personnel - " each of the APEC member countries, in accordance with its laws and regulations concerning the entry and stay of persons who are not its citizens, is obliged to allow technical and administrative personnel hired by an investor of another APEC member country to enter and stay on its territory for the purpose of carrying out activities related to the related to capital investments";

10) avoidance of double taxation - "each of the APEC member countries undertakes to make efforts to avoid double taxation related to foreign investments";

11) investor compliance with the rules and regulations of the host country or investor behavior - "it is considered that foreign investments are useful and contribute to the national economy of the recipient country, when foreign investors comply with the laws, administrative rules and regulations of the recipient country on an equal basis with their own national legislation";

12) removal of barriers to the export of capital - "the obligation of each of the APEC member countries to eliminate or minimize administrative rules and regulations, requirements and restrictions that hinder the flow of capital and investment activities of foreign investors" [ARES Non-Binding..., 1994].

Given the nature of these principles, it could be said that they are not legally binding due to the specific reasons for their adoption.

First, the principles were adopted as guidelines in addition to the existing investment or behavior Modeling Principles (demeanor) for national legislators of APEC member countries to liberalize investment regimes or eliminate those restrictions in the investment legislation of each member country that are inconsistent with the general principles and goals of the APEC organization for the creation of a new economic environment. by 2010-2020, free trade and investment zones in the Asia-Pacific region. For example, according to these principles, China has reduced the level of import tariffs from 23% to 9%; opened up more sectors of the economy to foreign direct investment (introducing a national regime for foreign investors in more sectors, allowing transactions in foreign currency for foreign enterprises, eliminating restrictions on foreign direct investment).-

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foreign exchange restrictions on current accounts); adopted and published laws that improve China's legal system on intellectual property rights; sought a general understanding of the government's policy on attracting foreign investment; and took some measures to facilitate the movement of foreign businessmen around the country [Individual Action Plans...]. In Russia, the individual action plan for the medium and long term (2001/2003-2010) defines the following investment objectives:: 1) further liberalization of the legal regime for admission and foreign investment, taking into account the APEC principles and international experience; 2) creation of a mechanism for attracting capital investment in the private sector of the Russian economy and promoting its effective functioning; 3) formation of a civilized securities market and its integration into the global financial market, etc. [Individual action plans...].

Secondly, these principles were adopted taking into account the specifics of investment regulation in APEC. For example, as already mentioned, the APEC organization consists of industrialized countries, developing countries( including newly industrialized countries) and countries with economies in transition, which address issues of attracting foreign investment in their national legislation in different ways. In most industrialized countries (countries with advanced economies), as a rule, there are no special legislative acts on foreign investment. Legal regulation of foreign processes in the countries of this group is provided not by special laws, but by general legislation regulating commodity-money relations in a developed market economy. However, like developing and transition economies, these countries, using a wide variety of means, seek, on the one hand, to attract capital from outside, but make sure that it is directed, if possible, to those sectors of the economy and areas that seem appropriate for development, and on the other - to stimulate the development of the economy. and enable foreign individuals and legal entities to carry out their investment activities in the country on an equal basis with national individuals and legal entities.

So, in the United States, prior permission to invest capital is not required. The Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States has the right to consider those foreign investments that play a significant role in the national interests of the United States. At the state level, investment benefits such as lower tax rates, free construction of necessary infrastructure, and others are provided. A number of states have development agencies that provide foreign investors with local information. Due to its liberal investment policies, the United States is the largest host nation1 . Investments exported from the United States are usually directed to the European Union and approximately

1 According to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), in 2002, China ranked first in the world in terms of foreign direct investment received, pushing the United States into second place. According to the OECD, the volume of foreign direct investment in China increased by 20% in 2002 and reached $ 53 billion. China's GDP increased by 8% in the same year. Foreign direct investment in the OECD countries - the 30 largest industrial countries - totaled $ 490 billion in 2002, falling sharply from the previous year amid sluggish economic growth and geopolitical challenges. Foreign direct investment in OECD countries peaked in 2000 at $ 1.27 trillion. The largest recipients of foreign direct investment among the OECD countries are traditionally the United States and the United Kingdom. In 2002, the volume of foreign direct investment they received fell very sharply. In the US, the figure fell by 77% to $ 30 billion, and in the UK-by 60% to $ 25 billion. [Financial News, 6.11.05].

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a third goes to developing countries. In Canada, some provinces (in particular, Alberta, Ontario, Quebec, etc.) have laws regulating the rights and interests of foreign investors. According to the World Trade Organization (WTO) [WTO Trade Policy Review... ]. Canada currently has one of the most liberal and transparent trade, political and investment regimes in the world: 90% of all imports are imported into the country duty-free; the weighted average customs tariff rate for the entire product range is only 0.9%. In Australia, there are foreign direct investment bureaus in every state that can provide benefits to foreign investors, including discounts on land purchases and leases, electricity and water payments, as well as preferential loans and subsidies. In contrast to developing (newly industrialized) and transition economies, advanced economies are generally less likely to impose bans and restrictions on foreign direct investment, and their legislation sets such limits mainly in the extractive industry.

In developing countries, including new industrial countries and countries with economies in transition, laws are adopted to create an investment market that establish the types and forms of ownership that underlie economic relations, including investment relations. Such laws primarily include constitutions, special investment codes and laws, and regulations regulating tax, currency, and customs relations. Regulations directly related to the foreign investment regime are also contained in civil and commercial codes, company legislation, etc. Some aspects of the investment regime are defined not in the sources of domestic law, but in multilateral or bilateral treaties, agreements and conventions. The main purpose of these treaties, agreements and conventions is to ensure, through legal means, relative stability of reproduction and freedom of capital movement in the context of a socio-economic and political crisis, and, in particular, to ensure the inflow of foreign private capital to these countries, providing it with legal guarantees against so-called political and non-commercial risks.

The legal status of foreign investment in this category of APEC member States is also very diverse, which is predetermined by significant differences in the policies of these states in relation to foreign capital. In some countries, foreign capital is restricted, subject to state control, and in some cases nationalized, while in others it is encouraged by providing certain benefits and guarantees, in particular, when foreign investment is invested in the most important areas of the economy of the host country [Boguslavsky, 1998, p.176]. The policies of this category of APEC member States towards foreign capital are often characterized by fluctuations and changes. This is largely due to the fact that in these countries, where the economy is characterized by a transition to market principles and suffers from an imperfect production structure, investment, mainly foreign, is one of the most important conditions for overcoming economic backwardness. The creation of new and modernization of old enterprises and industries, as well as the development of infrastructure, require significant resources that are difficult, and sometimes impossible, to accumulate in a reasonable time at the expense of own funds. The necessary resources can be obtained practically only through the import of capital [Chhorn Prolyng, 2000, p. 14].

As for the procedure for admission of foreign capital to these countries, each of them has a certain admission procedure. In some countries, there is a permissive (or licensing) system, i.e. an investor is issued a preliminary permit (license) to carry out investment activities. In other countries:-

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free access of capital is allowed in principle. However, under any system, the recipient State may impose prohibitions and restrictions on foreign investors to carry out certain types of activities or to carry out such activities in certain territories.

The investment laws of APEC member countries usually provide for several regimes for foreign investment, with a particularly privileged regime established for enterprises that require large capital investments and are created in those sectors of the economy in which the developing country itself is most interested. The main benefits provided by the privileged regime are usually the following: exemption from customs duties on the import of equipment and raw materials necessary for the construction and operation of the enterprise; full or partial exemption from corporate income tax for a certain period of time; duty-free export of finished products; the right to hire qualified personnel at their discretion; the right to fully or partially transfer of profits abroad; provision of guarantees in case of nationalization, etc. Thus, according to the World Bank forecasts, the economic growth of East Asian countries in 2004, excluding Japan, was 6.3%. The economic growth of these countries is due, in addition to increasing exports, to low accounting rates and a large volume of investment in China, Vietnam and Thailand. Foreign investment in China, Indonesia, South Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand totaled about $ 60 million in 2003, an increase of $ 1.5 billion. higher than in 2002. At the same time, 53.5 billion dollars. of this amount, China accounts for $ 6.5 billion and the rest of the countrys2 [Finansovye Izvestiya, 19.04.2004; Alliance Media News Agency..., 2004]. According to the Ministry of Commerce of the People's Republic of China, the volume of foreign direct investment in China increased by 10.72% in January 2005 compared to January 2004, to $ 4.1 billion. [Finmarket, 21.02.2005]. China's success is mainly due to its huge and expanding domestic market, "soft evolution", optimal macroeconomic reforms, and investment promotion measures in almost all provinces.

As for Russia, according to the OECD analytical report, in 2004 the volume of foreign direct investment in the country increased to $ 11.7 billion. According to the document, "direct investment in Russia, which had already peaked in 2003, improved its position and reached $ 11.7 billion in 2004 "[RIA "Oreanda", 24.06.2005]. According to the Bank of Russia's Balance of Payments, the Russian economy received $ 9.3 billion in the first half of 2005. foreign direct investment, which is twice as much as in the first half of 2004 ($4.5 billion). Including in the first quarter of 2005, their volume amounted to 5.4 billion dollars, in the second quarter of 2005-3.9 billion dollars. The volume of portfolio investments increased by 20% in the first half of 2005 compared to the first half of 2004 and reached $ 2.4 billion. Russian companies also attracted $ 11.9 billion in loans and borrowings in the first half of 2005. The total volume of foreign investment in the first half of 2005 was $ 23.6 billion, compared to $ 14.8 billion in the first half of 2004. [Finmarket, 6.11.2005], which is explained by the liberal investment regime and the reliable legal guarantees provided to foreign investments, which are provided for in the new federal law on foreign investment in the Russian Federation.

2 China in 2003 for the first time in history surpassed the United States in terms of attracted foreign direct investment due to the growth of capital investment by multinational corporations in the economy of developing countries, writes The Wall Street Journal, citing data from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. According to the OECD, which brings together the world's 30 most highly developed countries, their total volume of direct investment in emerging markets increased more than 6-fold in 2003, to a record $ 192 billion. compared to $ 31.7 billion in 2002. Of this amount, China accounted for $ 53 billion, only slightly less than in 2002, while the United States accounted for $ 40 billion.

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Third, these principles were adopted taking into account the specific legal consciousness and legal culture that has developed in the Asian participating countries, and the concept of law as a repository of norms, the implementation of which should not be enforced. In this part of the world, in particular in China, historically the norms of morality prevailed over the norms of law in regulating any issues of public life, including the most important ones [Livshits, 1994, pp. 87-88]. This attitude to law in China stems from the Confucian teaching, which forms the basis of state ideology in the traditional Chinese empire and has retained its significance even today. According to the ideas of Confucianism, education and persuasion should be at the forefront, not power and coercion. As a result of these views, the Chinese have a negative attitude to the European idea of law with its rigor and abstractness. A person should not insist on their rights, because it is the duty of everyone to strive for harmony and forget about themselves in the interests of all. In any case, a specific decision should respond with a fair and humane feeling, and not be squeezed into the framework of a legal scheme. Thus, compensation for harm should not be an undue burden on the shoulders of the debtor and lead his family to ruin.

According to the ethical teaching of Confucianism, a citizen who believes that someone in relation to him has neglected the rules of "li" (i.e., the rules of harmonious," correct " behavior) should strive for an impartial resolution of the conflict through calm discussion (reconciliation/consultation), rather than emphasize the differences that have arisen, insisting on their rights or appealing to others. to the judge [Sukharev, 2003, p. 376].

Vietnam's legal culture was similar to that of China in many ways. In this system, legislation receded into the background, giving the main role to moral and ethical norms. The application of the law was of an auxiliary nature, and exclusively for solving issues of national importance. The legislator left the relationships between individuals to the discretion of the family or community, giving them the right to apply criminal sanctions. It was also believed that the main source of law is contained not only in the law, but in the human heart. And so, "governance through people should take precedence over governance through laws."

Despite the fact that the legal system in Vietnam is currently modernized, the principles underlying the regulation of civil law relations in Vietnam are distinguished by an attempt to combine traditional moral values with the postulates characteristic of classical civil law. Thus, the Civil Code establishes the principles of civil liability, respect for the law, freedom of contracts and private entrepreneurship, equality of parties in civil relations, respect and protection of property rights and personal rights of citizens, violation of which entails civil liability, etc. At the same time, it is emphasized that the establishment and implementation of " civil rights and obligations should preserve national characteristics and respect and develop the norms of good morals and morals, customs and traditions, as well as solidarity, mutual love, the spirit of unity of each individual with the community and the community with each individual, as well as the moral values of other nations, 4 of the Civil Code) [Civil Code of Vietnam, 1995].

Many countries in East and South-East Asia, like China and Vietnam, use other norms along with the modern legal system. For example, Malaysia's legal system is distinctly mixed. Basically, as a former British colony and a member of the Commonwealth, this country relies on English common law and equity rules, as well as general application statuses. However, in addition to this, other legal systems are used to regulate the personal status of certain groups of the population - Malays, Hindus, and Chinese (respectively, Muslim, Hindu law, and traditional Confucian norms). In the modern world

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Malaysian customary law (adat) means: 1) manners, etiquette; 2) criterion of correctness; 3) natural order; 4) law (in the sense of legal norms); 5) law (in the sense of the concept of law) [Muromtsev, 1987, p.21; Sukharev, 2003, p. 483].

The possibility of the stateless operation of law in the early stages of its formation in the history of East and South-East Asian countries is recognized by a number of many scientists. At the same time, some of them admit it as a general theoretical hypothesis, while others consider it as a fact when analyzing traditional law. In the preface to the work of N. A. Krasheninnikova, O. A. Zhidkov notes that "ideological and socio-psychological facts in society increased the effectiveness of legal norms so significantly that in some cases they almost negated the need for state coercion" [Muromtsev, 1987, p.21].

Thus, the set of norms used within APEC to consolidate and implement investment policy is created as a result of a special rule-making policy that is unknown in other regional economic associations. The peculiarity of such a policy is revealed by the desire to avoid mandatory uniformity in investment rulemaking. Achieving such uniformity in the face of existing differences in the level of socio-economic development of the participating countries would be both impossible and impractical. However, it is also impossible to build investment regulation without relying on some general principles, otherwise the creation of a common regional investment climate would have to be postponed indefinitely. The paradox of the situation, in other words, is that the purpose of regulation is often inconsistent with the economic capabilities of the participating countries. If we hope to achieve the alignment of socio-economic development, we would have to postpone indefinitely the very idea of integration rapprochement between the countries of the region.

However, the hopelessness of the described situation seems imaginary, seeming. The solution was found on the path of a very non-trivial approach, which allowed us to reconcile the differences that were considered incompatible, to reconcile the contradictions that were considered irreconcilable. This truly striking and original approach was reflected in the adoption of the so-called non-binding investment regulatory principles.

The content and significance of these principles have already been commented on in this paper. It is much more important to explain the underlying conditions and reasons for choosing them as a method of resolving these contradictions.

In our opinion, we should talk about the stratagem approach, or, more precisely, the stratagem of investment regulation, which follows from the APEC legal documents. Although the term "stratagem" is of European origin (the ancient Greeks used this word for a technique of military art that allows the enemy to achieve their own goals in a way that is not obvious to the enemy), however, it is quite appropriate to use it to refer to the strategy and tactics of solving problems of investment regulation in APEC. Strictly speaking, the theory of stratagemicity has been known since ancient times and in the East, judging by the treatise of the greatest thinker of Ancient China, Sun Tzu, who suggested that military leaders put preliminary calculations and plans in the form of stratagems: [Myasnikov, 2004]. This long-standing idea of "putting preliminary calculations in the form of stratagems" is also followed by prominent scientists of our time, in particular Professor R. Penrose. As applied to solving mathematical problems, he described it as follows: "mathematics is a subject where accuracy is always put above all else. Indeed, written reports place great emphasis on the precise wording and completeness of all statements. However, in order to convey a mathematical idea (usually through a verbal description), such precision and formality are sometimes a hindrance, so that a less clear and formal descriptive form may be required at first. And as soon as the very essence of the idea is understood , then you can move on to the details"

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[Penrose, 2005, p. 366]. It is the stratagem of thinking that makes it possible to make long-term and effective plans, to create a system of algorithms for achieving the set goal instead of a set of rigidly planned measures and rules, that underlies the "non-binding principles" of investment regulation.

So, investment stratagems within the APEC framework, in our opinion, are long-term plans aimed at solving the major tasks set for regulating foreign investment and meeting the interests of all states in the Asia-Pacific region. In investment regulation, stratagemicity is revealed as the sum of targeted investment measures designed to implement a long-term strategic plan that provides solutions to the cardinal problems of attracting foreign investment to APEC in the format of relative non-binding principles of investment regulation. Being aimed at implementing the stratagem, the participating countries draw their resources and methods not from peremptory norms, such as those stipulated by the investment Agreements concluded by APEC member countries on the Promotion and mutual Protection of foreign direct investment (for example, the agreements between the Russian Federation and the United States on investment promotion of April 3, 1992, between the Russian Federation and the United Between the Russian Federation and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam on the promotion and mutual Protection of investments of June 16, 1994, between the USSR and the People's Republic of China on the promotion and mutual protection of investments of July 21, 1990, etc.), and in non-binding investment principles that are advisory and stimulating in nature, which allows participants to apply them at their discretion, taking into account its economic position, historical, social and cultural basis of each country. Nevertheless, these non-binding provisions still remain principles for them, since the deadline for their implementation should not exceed the established limits (2010/2020).

A stratagem is like a system of algorithms. It organizes the sequence of actions. It is well known that " politics is the art of the possible." This expression, in its banal interpretation, boils down to the fact that a politician is limited in his abilities and must, being a realist, take into account the specific situation as much as possible, therefore, he cannot do more than what circumstances allow him. However, in reality, the "art of the possible" is the ability to anticipate the consequences of political steps, their possible results. And it is precisely in this way that the APEC "non-binding investment principles" are designed to provide solutions to investment problems.

Let's assume that the APEC investment principles for regulating foreign direct investment are strictly legally binding and subject to strict compliance. This will mean that all APEC member countries, despite their different levels of economic development, as well as historical, social and cultural traditions, will have to turn APEC into a closed organization. However, this is exactly what contradicts its stated principles (open regionalism). Consequently, the mandatory application of such principles will cause controversy among APEC member countries, and many of them will probably be forced to declare their withdrawal from the organization, since their economic situation and other circumstances will not allow them to ensure compliance with them immediately after joining.

However, the art of achieving the possible shown by "non-binding principles" allows, in our opinion, developers of principles to anticipate the consequences of their compulsory application and prefer to them the possible results of their voluntary implementation, predetermining the relationship between the established goal and the limits of application of the principles in each participating country. In this regard, the stratagem, handicap-

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by analyzing the ability to calculate the moves in the implementation of economic and legal policies, and sometimes not just to calculate, but also to create a program for the gradual implementation of the principles, indicating more the course of movement, rather than its pace and means, that is, a program that takes into account the peculiarities of the social, cultural, political, economic and legal development of each country, the necessary legal foresight of investment regulation within the framework of an economic integration organization that unites states with different levels of economic development.

Thus, the" non-binding investment principles " of APEC, from the point of view of the stratagem theory, do not just offer its member countries recipes for determining an individual behavioral strategy for attracting resources to the national economy, but also aim to take into account the interests of each member country of this organization in a comprehensive manner, defining the norms that APEC participants follow or ignore to achieve their goals. a common goal.

This is a goal that binds everyone to create a free trade and investment zone in the Asia-Pacific region by 2010 for developed countries and by 2020 for developing countries.

list of literature

Boguslavskiy M. M. Mezhdunarodnoe chastnoe pravo [International Private Law]. Moscow: Yurist, 1998.

Civil Code of Vietnam, 1995.

Ivanov M. J. Debut Rossii v APES [Russia's debut in APEC]. 1999. N 3.

Alliance Media News Agency based on Interfax materials. 29.06.2004 (

Individual action plans of the Russian Federation ( / or ARES:

Kistanov V. The Asia-Pacific Region on the Threshold of the XXI Century: towards the Asian Community in the "Asian way". Problemy Dalnego Vostoka [Problems of the Far East]. 1998. N 1.

Muromtsev E. I. Sources of law in developing countries of Asia and Africa: Sistema i vliyanie traditsii [System and Influence of Tradition], Moscow: UDN, 1987.

Livshits R. Z. Teoriya prava [Theory of Law], Moscow: BEK Publ., 1994.

Penrose R. The King's New Mind: on Computers, Thinking, and the Laws of Physics. under the general editorship of V. O. Malyshenko. Foreword by T. T. Malinetskogo, Moscow: Editorial URSS, 2005.

Pravovye sistemy stran mira: Entsiklopedicheskii spravochnik [Legal systems of countries of the World: An Encyclopedia].

Myasnikov V. S. Preface / / Harro Von Sanger. Stratagems. About the Chinese art of living and surviving. Vol. 1. Moscow: Eksmo Publ., 2004.

RIA "Oreanda". 24.06.2005 / / Small business (

Finmarket. 21.02.2005 (

Finmarket. 6.11.2005 // Rangefinservice (

Financial news. 19.04.2004; 6.11.2005 (www.

Chorn Prolyng. Legal regulation of foreign investments in the Kingdom of Cambodia, Moscow: RUDN University, 2000.

Chorn Prolyng. Legal regulation of foreign investment in APEC member countries. Moscow, 2005.

АРЕС Non-Binding Investment Principles. Jakarta (Indonesia), 11 - 12 November 1994. Annex 1 to "Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Ministerial Meeting". Jakarta (Indonesia), 1994.

Individual Action Plans of the People's Republic of China for 1997, 1998,1999.

WTO Trade Policy Review. Canada, 2000.


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