Libmonster ID: VN-1205
Author(s) of the publication: V. M. MAZYRIN


Candidate of Historical Sciences

Russia Keywords:Vietnamtrade and economic cooperation

The peoples of Russia and Vietnam are traditionally linked by friendly relations, which since 2001 have received the status of "strategic partnership".

Political interaction has intensified, including at the highest level, which is based on identical or similar approaches to most international and regional issues. Trade, economic and investment ties began to be restored. The exchange continues in the fields of science and technology, education and training, culture, tourism and interregional relations.

However, as the leaders of both countries admit, the current state of trade and economic partnership does not yet correspond to the level and potential of our common relations, does not meet the aspirations of our governments and peoples. 1 Moreover, the Russian Federation supports that these relations should not be closed in a bilateral format, but cover the entire South-East Asia. As Vladimir Khristenko, chairman of the Russian part of the bilateral commission on trade, Economic, scientific and technical cooperation, said at a recent meeting, Vietnam is considered by Russia as a major regional center and a pillar in promoting Russian interests in the market of this region.

In 2009, despite the global economic crisis, the mutual trade turnover not only did not decrease, but also increased thanks to the stimulus measures, although not to the same extent as in 2008. (by 62.5%). According to Russian data, the increase was 9% (compared to 11.5% in Vietnam) due to an increase of almost half in exports of Russian goods. According to our estimates, Russia's imports fell by 23%, and Vietnam's - by 62% at once, which may be due, among other reasons, to the closure of the Cherkizovo market in Moscow, which served as an important supply channel for Vietnamese goods (or Chinese goods that were counted as Vietnamese). The parties intend to increase their trade turnover to $ 3 billion in 2010, and to $ 10 billion by 2020 (or even earlier), but this will not be easy to achieve given the economic situation in the world.

Recently, efforts have been made to ensure the growth of mutual investment and trade, as well as the entire range of cooperation in general. This was discussed during the visits of President Vladimir Putin to Vietnam (November 2006), President of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam Nguyen Minh Thiet (October 2008) and Prime Minister Nguyen Tan Dung to Russia (December 2009). A number of important agreements and documents were signed that formalize new joint economic projects.

Measures have been agreed to encourage the exchange of goods and services, as well as investment in major projects. To this end, the heads of Government of Vietnam and the Russian Federation instructed to study the possibility of creating a joint free trade zone. The new format opens up the possibility of applying preferential duties, lowering trade barriers, and improving the trade accounting system. This would make it possible to overcome the serious obstacles to trade development caused by the delay in Russia's accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO). The parties also agreed to finalize agreements on mutual investment promotion and protection as soon as possible. It was decided to expand support for entrepreneurs of the two countries in creating and expanding direct business contacts, market research, and finding effective forms of interaction.


Vietnam is a traditional trading partner of Russia. Until 1991, the growth of trade turnover was mainly ensured by providing Vietnam with commodity loans on preferential terms. At the same time, the USSR accounted for 60-70% of the total volume of foreign trade in Vietnam. The transition in 1991 in trade operations to settlements in freely convertible currency and the cessation of state lending to foreign trade led to a sharp reduction in trade turnover. 10-year streak of crisis in mutual funds

Table 1. Trade turnover between Russia and Vietnam in 2000-2009, $ mln











2009 forecast3


































Balance sheet











Source: Federal Customs Service of Russia, data for 2009 -;;

page 23

This relationship was caused by the collapse of the socialist commonwealth, and then the USSR.

Since the beginning of the XXI century, trade turnover has been improving as a result of stabilization and dynamic economic growth in both countries. Data on trade turnover between Russia and Vietnam over the past decade illustrate this trend (see Table 1) .2

However, Vietnam's share in Russia's foreign trade and Russia's share in Vietnam's foreign trade remain modest. So, in 2009, these indicators were only 0.3% and 1.45%, respectively.

The main trading partners of Vietnam, which are many times ahead of the Russian Federation, are China and the United States (at the end of 2009, $21.35 and $14.36 billion, or 17% and 11.5% of the total trade turnover, respectively).4. But in the context of the global crisis and the contraction of developed markets, especially the US, which accounted for 17% of Vietnam's exports, it had to look for alternative options. That is why there was a turn towards those countries whose trade potential was not used enough, including Russia. It is noteworthy that such efforts were made to overcome the previous economic downturn caused by the 1997-1998 Asian monetary and financial crisis.

The volume of mutual trade in 2008, according to the Ministry of Industry and Trade of Vietnam, grew by more than 62.5% (in 2007, the growth was only 16%, and this was preceded by a decline of 24% in 2006).

In recent years, there has been not only an increase in the value of trade (partly due to rising world prices), but also an improvement in the structure and range of goods supplied. Until 2005, Russia was running a growing surplus, then flows became more balanced, and in 2008, for the first time, a large deficit was noted (according to Russian statistics). The situation seems to have returned to its original point in 2009.

Russian exports to Vietnam increased by 75.5% in 2008 (compared to 88% in 2007), primarily due to increased exports of fuel and lubricants, coal, ferrous metals, chemical fertilizers, machinery and equipment, vehicles and spare parts. Russia is still one of the leading exporters of ferrous metals to the Vietnamese market. In general, Russian exports to Vietnam are characterized by a low share of raw materials (oil, gas, other minerals, roundwood, etc.) and a high share of machinery and equipment (31.8% in 2007). Together with fuel and fertilizers, the latter account for more than 80% of Russian exports.

Sales of Russian goods to Vietnam today are mainly carried out under commercial contracts, without attracting government lending. The exception was the supply of technological equipment for the Sesan 3 HPP at the expense of a $100 million state loan.

Russian imports from Vietnam grew by 46.4% in 2008 (compared to 49.1% in 2007). In the commodity structure of imports, the main part is made up of food products: seafood, rice, tea, coffee, pepper, soups, spices, vegetables and fruits, vegetable oil, etc. The supply of these goods has provided an increase in trade volume in recent years. The Russian Federation also imports light industry products (ready-made clothing, shoes-mainly sports, natural rubber, handicrafts). In 2008, the share of the food group increased to 60%5.

Seafood has become the main commodity of Vietnamese exports to Russia since 2006: their share in it has grown from 22% in 2007 to 30% in 2008. The Russian market has become the 5th largest in the world in terms of purchases of Vietnamese seafood (10%) and can continue to grow. Other obstacles to expanding bilateral trade remain. Among the objective factors are the lack of information and administrative formalities that hinder the work of Vietnamese entrepreneurs in Russia, in addition to geographical remoteness. In particular, problems arise due to Russia's use of" technical " barriers to trade, both tariff and non-tariff, in order to protect national production. For example, there are restrictions and bans on the import of some of the most popular Vietnamese goods (fish, meat, rice, tea). There is a lack of funds to pay for contracts, including due to the high cost of loans. Due to the lack of trust and insurance mechanisms, direct settlements on trading operations are complicated.

The situation is also complicated by the fact that trading involves mainly medium and small companies with limited inventory and capital, which are excessively afraid of even small risks. In addition, they make poor use of the available opportunities for mutual cooperation, and they are weak in finding new customers. Entering an open and highly competitive market, such companies cannot operate successfully.

Vietnamese products, especially fresh vegetables and fruits, meat and fish, could be in high demand in the Russian Far East, even in Siberia and the Urals, as was the case in Soviet times. However, today, high transport and customs tariffs deprive Vietnamese goods of visible advantages. In addition, in most cases, they are easily replaced by goods from China, with which Russia has much closer relations, which objectively reduces interest in cooperation with Vietnam. This is perhaps the main geopolitical obstacle to boosting Russian-Vietnamese relations, especially in the economic sphere.

The Vietnamese side is more proactive in finding measures to ensure the growth of mutual trade. It conducts more extensive advertising, holds annual exhibitions of export goods, and has stepped up mutual contacts and negotiations to attract new partners with the participation of industry associations and trade support centers. Work has begun to reduce the cost of production and improve the quality of Vietnamese products in order to increase their competitiveness. To do this, Vietnam decided to provide state support to manufacturers and exporters, making investments in updating technologies and equipment, advertising product brands, and insuring export contracts.

The Russian Federation is invited to expand the range of its exports. For example, to implement the energy development program for 2006-2015. Vietnam would like to conclude long-term contracts with mining companies for the supply of coal from the Siberian regions. For this purpose, it is also ready to invest in joint ventures for the development of coal deposits. For the development of metallurgy, Vietnam needs to purchase in Russia not only coking and fat coal*, but also various types of steel billets and other types of special products.


The assessment of the volume of mutual trade and economic cooperation will be far from complete without

* Fat or bituminous coal is characterized by a higher carbon content and therefore a higher calorific value. - Editor's note.

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accounting for the supply of military equipment, which is usually not included in the official turnover by statistics. Vietnam's defense spending increases annually in order to modernize the national army as soon as possible. Cooperation between our countries, which has increased recently, is strategic in nature, although, unlike in the past, it does not mean a military alliance.

Promising forms of military-technical cooperation are the creation of a comprehensive system for protecting the sea coast of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, a regional technical service center for the air defense system, modernization of SU and MIG aircraft, and a number of others. The Russian side additionally earns money by providing technical assistance in the operation, repair and modernization of previously delivered weapons, transferring licenses for the production of certain types of military equipment, and training local personnel.

In a few years, Vietnam may become one of the five largest recipients of Russian weapons and defense equipment in the world, among which India, Algeria, Venezuela and China are currently leading.

In 2010, Rosoboronexport will fulfill a contract to supply Vietnam with a batch of 8 Su-30MK2 multirole fighters (a modified version of the Su-27) worth more than $400 million. In December 2009, an order was agreed for another 12 such aircraft (the contract value is estimated at $600 million). Additional purchases of missiles and ground-based equipment worth several hundred million dollars are also expected.6 In addition, Vietnam is considering purchasing the latest SU-35 and MIG-29 aircraft, as well as several Mi-17 helicopters.

The Vietnamese Navy will also receive new weapons. First, 2 patrol ships will arrive (the frigate "Cheetah"), and the construction of one has already been completed. The cost of this order is estimated by experts at $60 million. A major contract was recently signed for the supply of 6 Varshavyanka Project 636 diesel-electric submarines to Vietnam. According to the Russian Center for Analysis of Strategies and Technologies, if the cost of building one submarine is $350 million, the entire contract will cost Vietnam $4 billion. This amount includes the construction of the submarines themselves (about $1.8 billion), as well as the creation of infrastructure for them: a naval and repair base, a communications center and a base for training crews, since the Vietnamese army did not previously have such equipment.7 A simple calculation shows that the volume of these orders is approaching $6 billion, and it will take more than 1% of Vietnam's GDP to pay for even a sixth of them per year.


With the technical assistance of the USSR, about 300 enterprises were built in Vietnam in various sectors of the national economy (electric power, mining and chemical industry, production of building materials, transport, food industry, etc.). Within the framework of long-term targeted programs, large plantations were created for growing coffee, tea, hevea, coconut palm, which today bring high incomes to Vietnam from the export of products to world markets. Unfortunately, these projects, as well as most other projects, were implemented under conditions that did not provide for Russia's share in the distribution of profits.

Today, Russia continues to participate in the development of the oil and gas and energy industry in Vietnam. A number of new areas have been added to these priority areas. Vietnam is interested in developing cooperation, especially in areas where Russia has rich experience and capabilities.

In the electric power industry, Russian companies operate quite successfully in the Vietnamese market in the face of intense international competition. Power Machines has completed or continues to participate in the construction of Wangbi TPP, Sesan 3 HPP, Buonkuop, Awyong, Pleikrong, and the share of its equipment in power plants in Vietnam has reached one-third of the total volume. Inter RAO UES intends to join the construction of two large thermal power plants. A project for the construction of the first two nuclear power plants in Vietnam by the State Atomic Energy Corporation Rosatom is being discussed within the framework of relations on the peaceful use of nuclear energy. The cost of these nuclear power plants (4 reactors each in 1 thous. MW each) is estimated at $10-15 billion 8.

Cooperation in the agricultural and industrial sphere has been resumed. It was decided to create a number of joint ventures for processing tea and coffee, and growing fish in freshwater reservoirs. The parties intend to systematically address all emerging issues in the field of fish and seafood trade, including veterinary medicine and phytosanitary, exchange experience in the field of water management construction, training and retraining of agricultural personnel.

A new direction of interaction, which grew out of the activation of commodity and cash flows, has emerged in the banking sector. In November 2006, the Vietnam-Russia Bank (VRB) was launched and took over some of the foreign economic settlements between the companies of the two countries, including payments and documentary operations. VRB is increasing its business volumes (capitalization has reached $430 million), and in December 2009 it opened its branch in Moscow. At the same time, the creation of a jointly managed investment fund in the amount of $500 million was initiated. (at the initial stage, the fund's budget will be $100 million) 9.

At the end of 2008, Russia ranked 25th in terms of direct investment among 64 countries and territories implementing investment projects in Vietnam. However, taking into account the contribution of the Russian side to the authorized capital of JV Vietsovpetro, it is an order of magnitude higher and closes the top ten. Excluding Vietsovpetro, Russian capital participated in 56 projects in Vietnam with a total cost of $611.4 million (only $233 million was actually spent) .10 They are implemented by 19 joint ventures, 28 companies with 100% Russian capital and 4 companies operating on the basis of a cooperation agreement.

They are engaged in the expansion of Hevea plantations and the production of natural rubber, the production of building materials, the processing of agricultural products, oil and gas production, sea communication, construction, and hotel business. Areas of further Russian investment in Vietnam are being worked out: in addition to traditional areas - in the development of solid minerals, transport, automotive, metallurgy, shipbuilding, telecommunications.

The leading and most efficient investment area remains the exploration and production of oil and gas on the continental shelf of South Vietnam.

They are conducted within the framework of the Vietsovpetro joint venture, founded in 1981 with an authorized capital of $1.5 billion. (with equal shares of participants). Over the years, Vietsovpetro JV has produced more than 180 million tons of oil and 20 billion cubic meters of associated gas. Today, it accounts for 50-60% of Vietnam's national oil production. Contributions to the Ros budget-

page 25

These investments amount to up to $500 million annually, which is a record among all enterprises with Russian participation abroad, and they bring up to 25% of all foreign exchange earnings to the Vietnamese state.11 Vietsovpetro JV applies technologies for deep drilling and oil production from formations with a low content of raw materials, in which it is ahead of Western competitors, and in general ranks 3rd among Southeast Asian oil and gas companies in terms of its performance.

Due to the expiration of the agreement on the establishment of the joint venture, an agreement was reached to transform it after 2010 into a joint-stock company (51% of the capital belongs to the Vietnamese side, 49% - to the Russian side), which will not only continue to operate in Vietnam, but will also operate in third countries. Vietsovpetro has been commissioned to develop new promising blocks of the sea shelf in the south. In 2008, the parties established a new joint venture, Rusvietpetro, with an authorized capital of over $300 million (51% of the capital is held by the Russian side), based on 13 fields in the Nenets Autonomous District with estimated reserves of 95 million tons of oil. It is planned to start their development from the end of 2010, to increase production to 2 million tons in 2011 and 6.4 million tons in 2020. The founders of these enterprises, Zarubezhneft and Petrovietnam, signed an agreement on the construction of a plant for the production of second-generation biobutanol from cellulosic raw materials in Vietnam.12

Following the pioneer, the main industry forces, represented by Gazprom, entered the Vietnamese market. In 2000, it started prospecting and exploration drilling in the central part of Vietnam's continental shelf, and gas production began at the same time. The role of the operator is performed by the Vietgazprom joint venture, which operates under production sharing conditions, and the exploration of six blocks and production is financed by the Russian side. In 2010, it is planned to invest $320 million (this is more than the group's total investment in Russia itself), and by 2015 it will reach full production. Another joint venture, Gazpromviet, has just been established on the territory of the Russian Federation (the parties ' shares in the authorized capital are 51:49) on the basis of the strategic partnership agreement between Gazprom and Petrovietnam. It will develop the Nagumanovskoye field in the Orenburg Region and possibly other fields in the Orenburg Region and the Komi Republic. For this, the Russian side is promised a share in Vietnam's gas distribution networks. Closer cooperation between the parties in the oil and gas industry implies not only the implementation of joint projects in Russia and Vietnam, but also access to third-country markets, primarily in Southeast Asia.13


Despite visible changes, cooperation in oil and gas production is constrained by a number of factors, including the impact of the global economic crisis. Critics in the Russian Federation view cooperation with Vietnam as "sluggish", considering that it is dominated by the exchange of Russian technologies for the purchase of equipment in Russia. It is noted that the parties continue to bargain over the conditions of control and financing of enterprises, production sharing, primarily in the field of oil production. Activation in related industries, including gas, is expected only after these problems are resolved 14.

Another joint venture that has been operating since Soviet times, Visorutex, is engaged in the cultivation of hevea (its plantations cover more than 1 thousand hectares) and the production of natural rubber. The company is one of the leaders in its industry, supplying a significant part of raw materials for Russian tire factories.

Until now, cooperation between the two countries is dominated by the old directions and forms laid down in the Soviet Union, and no new projects of national significance are being formed.

Due to limited financial resources and lack of initiative, Russian companies missed opportunities to launch such projects in Vietnam. On the other hand, this was facilitated by a high degree of corruption and politicized decision-making on strategic projects in Vietnam. So, Russia lost the opportunity to implement the Vinasat space program to launch the first Vietnamese satellite and create a system for its maintenance. Attempts to join a number of other strategic programs, such as the construction of metro stations in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, the first oil refinery, and a number of others, have also failed. New projects for the extraction of minerals - coal and bauxite-may also end in the same way (the aluminum industry giant Rusal has almost stopped working in Vietnam). These examples point to restrictions on Russia's participation in strategic sectors of the Vietnamese economy.

The Vietnamese side is taking measures to address the problems hindering the development of cooperation in key sectors. A new form of cooperation, although widely used in Vietnam by other countries, is the transfer of production and technologies from their places of origin to countries with more favorable production conditions. Thus, the Power Machines company intends to create an enterprise for the production of hydraulic turbines and hydrogenators in Vietnam. Such enterprises were previously created with the participation of KAMAZ (truck assembly) and a number of other Russian automakers. It is proposed to jointly build factories for the production of special steels, small tractors and others.

Vietnam invites Russia to make greater use of its opportunities to participate in the international development assistance program. This could make it possible to ensure that the funds allocated by the Russian Federation are invested in the restoration of former objects of bilateral cooperation and the implementation of new projects on terms of mutual benefit. This is exactly what Vietnam's biggest donors, especially Japan, do to ensure their interest.

There are also positive developments on the part of Russian private business. He began to show interest in Vietnam, finally realizing the potential benefits, positive dynamics of economic growth and a favorable investment climate in this country. In 2007, 5 new investment projects were registered: production of packaging, production of electric cable products, promotion of services in the field of tourism. It is noteworthy that large Russian companies - leaders in their industries-have begun to enter the Vietnamese market, and capital is being invested in high-tech industries.

In July 2008, a Vietnamese-Russian joint venture GTEL-Mobile in the field of mobile telephony was established with the participation of Vimpelcom. The Russian side not only provides technical and operational expertise, but also contributes significant capital, gaining the right to most of the profits and significant influence on the operational activities of the enterprise. The contribution to the authorized capital amounted to about $300 million, in total, it is planned to invest up to $1 billion over the next few years, which indicates the seriousness of intentions.

page 26

the company. The mobile network was put into commercial operation under the Beeline trademark in mid-2009.15 Other Russian operators, such as MTS and Transtelecom, are also showing interest in Vietnam's rapidly growing telecommunications market.

In the first half of 2009, two more large projects worth about $330 million were launched, which raised Russia in the list of foreign investors of Vietnam to the 5th place among 35. In particular, for the first time, the Russian business represented by the Mirax investment group and the Metropol financial group showed great attention to the very "hot" area of real estate operations - the construction of hotels, tourist and shopping centers, and residential city blocks. At the same time, they proceeded from a very rapid growth in the flow of Russian tourists to Vietnam (in 2006, 29 thousand, in 2007, over 43 thousand, in 2008, according to tour operators, the limit of 70 thousand was exceeded).16

There are other promising areas that have not yet been developed by Russian business. This is a rapidly developing transport sector in Vietnam: construction of main roads and port facilities, shipbuilding, aviation (production of engines and equipment, participation in the air transportation market), laying urban communications. The Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam has allocated most of the funds allocated to combat the consequences of the global economic crisis to the development of basic infrastructure. Taking advantage of such lucrative opportunities is hindered by the inability of our large companies to win the competition for the local market and limit themselves to the generally accepted rate of profit.

Vietnamese direct investment in the Russian economy is also taking place in a bilateral format, and this is a new feature of our cooperation. According to the Ministry of Planning and Investment of Vietnam, at the end of 2008, 13 enterprises with Vietnamese capital were operating in the Russian Federation with a declared investment volume of $78.4 million (more than $34 million was spent). These figures do not yet include the capital of new joint oil and gas companies in the Russian Federation. Vietnamese funds are mainly invested in the food, clothing, footwear and woodworking industries, as well as the restaurant business. However, in addition to officially established enterprises, there are a lot of small companies founded here by Vietnamese migrants under the guise of Russian ones (there are about 300 of them).17 They have a lot of underground workshops working independently, which the Federal Migration Service (FMS) has often found and is still finding on the territory of Moscow markets, including the former Cherkizovsky market, in the Moscow region and other regions. Consequently, the size of Vietnamese capital is much higher than is commonly believed. It may not be inferior to Russian investment in Vietnam. All the more serious is the problem of getting at least part of it out of the shadows.

Thus, the scale and depth of Russian-Vietnamese economic cooperation is still relatively small, although in recent years they have begun to expand. Russia focuses on investing in Vietnam's extractive and primary manufacturing industries, and pays little attention to high technologies and science. We are afraid to use the Vietnamese capital and labor accumulated inside the country. The parties trade a narrow set of goods that are mostly not high-tech (our exports) or high-quality (imports).

Given the high dynamics of Vietnam's economic growth and its dependence on the United States and China, Russia is interested in expanding trade and economic ties with its long-standing partner. Cooperation with Vietnam can and should continue to grow - there are all the necessary conditions for this. It is of strategic importance because it can strengthen Russia's position in Southeast Asia, create objective conditions for developing relations with ASEAN and enhance Russia's role in the most promising region of the XXI century - the Asia-Pacific region. But to consolidate the emerging trend towards the activation of economic relations between our countries, great efforts and political will are required. Financial support from the state authorities of both countries, the removal of obvious obstacles to the expansion of private initiative, the free exchange of goods, the movement of capital and information are particularly important.

1 Speech of the Prime Minister of Vietnam Nguyen Tan Dung in Moscow on December 14, 2009. Thuc day hop tac doanh nghiep tuong xung voi quan he Viet-Nga. 15.12.2009 - www.vietrassiaxom/bizcenter/0/news/1615/16899

2 The article uses statistical data of the Mayor of the Russian Federation-see: e51fed443e22eb9/tes_vietnam.doc

3 According to the Vietnamese side, in the first 10 months of 2009, Russia's exports amounted to $ 1,172. 6 million, i.e. they exceeded the forecast for the whole year and the level of 2008, while imports fell noticeably-to $346.9 million, the turnover of which reached $ 1.5 billion. General Statistical Office of Vietnam. 24.12.2009 -

4 Japan is also among the leaders ($16.8 billion). - 12%), which significantly strengthened its position in 2008, not counting the regional groupings-ASEAN ($9.78 billion-21%) and the EU ($6.31 billion-11%) - GSU of Vietnam-

5 Nhieu co hoi mo rong giao thuong voi Nga // Kinh te Sai Gon online -

6 VN sap ky hop dong mua vu khi cua Nga. 05.12.09 -

7 ITAR-TASS, 23.07.2009.

Biryukov A. 8 Vietnam is waiting for Russian power engineers - 16.12.2009. The decision to build two nuclear power plants with a capacity of 4 GW each in Vietnam was made by the country's Parliament in November 2009.

9 Thuc day hop tac doanh nghiep tuong xung voi quan he Viet - Nga -;

10 HUONG LOAN. Thuong m?i Viet - Nga: Tien toi kim ngach 3 ty USD vao nam 2010 // Thoi bao kinh te Viet Nam, 07.08.2009 -

11 Mo rong giao thuong Viet - Nga, thu hep khoang each -

12 Vietsovpetro, ngon co dau cua su hop tac Nga Viet. 09.11.2009 -

13 Gazprom co ke ho?ch dau tu Ion vao Viet Nam. 15.12.2009 -

14 Energy, 18.05.2009 -

15 According to Frost & Sullivan, Vietnam had 64.8 million mobile subscribers in 2008, with a market penetration rate of 74.9%. In 2007 alone, more than 27 million SIM cards were sold in the country -; www.telnews.ra/event/14084.12.09.2007.

16 Vietnam Statistical Yearbook 2007. Hanoi, 2008, p. 478; РИА Новости, 10.09.2007 -;

17 Nhieu co hoi mo rong giao thuong voi Nga..; Andronova I. V. Edict. soch., p. 40.


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