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In this article, the author analyzes the period of formation of the dialogue between ASEAN and the predecessor organization of the EU, the European Economic Community (EEC) in 1971-1984. This stage is fundamental in the development of cooperation between the two regional entities. Parallel to the integration processes in the Asia-Pacific region (APAC) and Europe, the dialogue between two influential regional entities, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and the European Union (EU), has recently been gaining momentum. On the one hand, Europe with its centuries - old traditions, political and economic foundations and stereotypes materialized in the form of the EU, and on the other-the dynamically developing East in the face of ASEAN, which united Southeast Asia.

Contacts between representatives of the two groups took place at the earliest stage of the existence of ASEAN, which was established in 1967, but since the Association was in its infancy, they did not lead to any concrete results [Zharov, 1982, pp. 127-133]. Initially, the EEC sought to establish contacts with the ASEAN countries on a bilateral basis. However, the EEC quickly abandoned it, which was caused by the common position of the ASEAN member States. Cooperation was mainly carried out within the framework of the ASEAN-EEC dialogue, and at various stages of negotiations, the forms of "dialogue" changed depending on the tasks set. At the earliest stages (1971-1977), contacts between the Southeast Asian countries and the EEC countries were not regular and were carried out sporadically, mainly to discuss individual issues.

Analyzing the reasons for the emergence of cooperation between two major regional associations, it can be stated that the appeal of ASEAN to the EEC was the result of a pragmatic policy of balancing between the most influential players in the international arena: the United States and Japan. After the collapse of the colonial system, the influence of Western Europe in Southeast Asia weakened, and the role of the United States and Japan, which were considered by the ASEAN countries as the main partners (Japan, in addition, as an example to follow), increased many times [Maletin, 1999, pp. 78-79]. But the ASEAN bet on these countries did not justify itself, on the one hand, because of the lack of interest of the United States in developing economic cooperation with the region, and on the other, because of Japan's desire to extract unilateral benefits from relations with the Association countries. In addition, both ASEAN and the EU set themselves the task of penetrating the European and Asian markets, respectively.

For the first time, representatives of the EEC and ASEAN held talks in the autumn of 1971 in Peru. As a result of these negotiations, contacts between the two regional associations became noticeably more active - since 1972, high-ranking representatives of both groups began to regularly visit the countries of Europe and Southeast Asia on working visits.

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In June 1972, ASEAN established a committee tasked with developing a coherent policy for the EAEU member States. The committee consists of trade ministers from five countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and the Philippines. The first chairman of this committee was Indonesian Trade Minister Sumitro. The headquarters of the coordination committee was located in Bangkok. The main task of the committee was to promote goods produced in the ASEAN countries to the European market. On June 16, 1972, a special committee was established in Brussels at the EEC headquarters, which included the ambassadors of the five ASEAN countries accredited in Belgium. Its functions included maintaining constant contacts with the EEC Commission. In December 1973, a team of Community experts visited Thailand, Indonesia and the Philippines. A conference was held in April 1974. Christopher Saume, Deputy Chairman of the EEC, Head of the External Relations Department, was elected Permanent Representative of the EEC at meetings with the Association's leaders.

On September 24-25, 1974, the third meeting of the ASEAN Foreign Ministers with the EEC delegation headed by K. Saume was held in Jakarta. The meeting discussed the possibilities of expanding cooperation between ASEAN and the EEC. The parties exchanged views on the EEC policy aimed at expanding trade with non-member countries, as well as regional integration projects. In addition, issues related to the state of the world economy, the development of ASEAN, and the creation of a common system of preferences were discussed [Joint Statement..., 1974, p. 1].

Emphasizing the instability of the global economic system, the parties agreed that not only developed countries should participate in this system, but also developing countries, given the growing independence of their economies. Attention was focused on the contribution that the common system of preferences was supposed to make to the development of international trade and international economic relations. At the meeting, an agreement was reached in principle on the establishment of a joint working group to further develop relations between ASEAN and the European Economic Community.

The most important milestones in the development of cooperation between ASEAN and the EEC were: the establishment of the ASEAN-EEC Joint Working Group in 1975 to explore ways to develop cooperation; the first meeting of Foreign Ministers in November 1978; the signing of the cooperation Agreement in 1980; the meeting of Foreign Ministers in 1984. an ASEAN partner in the international arena. In 1975, a Joint Working Group was set up to study those areas of joint activity that were of maximum interest to both sides to expand and activate. The results of its activities, of course, were very useful for the further development of the ASEAN countries and the analysis of the situation in the EEC itself [Joint Communique..., 1975, p. 2,].

During the visit of the European parliamentary delegation to the Southeast Asian countries in July 1975, the Governments of the ASEAN countries asked the leadership of the EEC to grant preferential customs tariffs to the members of the Association on more favorable terms than those applied under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). The request contained a desire to establish customs tariffs that are as close as possible to the tariffs already provided to 46 African, Caribbean and Pacific countries [Maletin, 1999, pp. 78-96].

In 1976, a program for the exchange of young professionals in the field of management was introduced, designed to attract young professionals to study the specifics of business and exchange experience. In 1977, the First ASEAN-EEC Industrial Conference was held [ASEAN..., s. a., p.2,4].

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At the meetings of the Joint Working Group, held alternately in Brussels and Asian capitals, plans were developed for preparing and holding actions designed to encourage the development of cooperation between representatives of the business circles of the ASEAN and EEC countries. Within the framework of this program, a number of seminars on technology transfer were held: in Singapore (1977), Kuala Lumpur (1978), Thailand (1979).

In June 1977, the Council of Ministers of the Community approved a framework for dialogue with ASEAN countries. In addition to the above-mentioned meetings, the Joint Working Group held regular meetings of the Committee of Permanent Representatives of the EEC member States, as well as representatives of the Commission with the ambassadors of the five ASEAN countries accredited in Brussels. In February 1977, a meeting of ASEAN Foreign Ministers was held, where it was announced that permanent contacts would be established with the EEC Council of Ministers and the Committee of Parliamentary Representatives. As part of these contacts, ASEAN has repeatedly made statements against the growing protectionism in the EAEU countries.

One of the most important milestones in the dialogue between the two organizations was the meeting of high-level representatives of ASEAN and the EEC held in Brussels in April 1977. At a meeting between German Vice-Chancellor and Foreign Minister Hans-Dietrich Genscher and former Foreign Minister of Thailand Upadit Panchariyangkun, who was Chairman of the ASEAN Permanent Council, it was decided that regular meetings of ASEAN and the EEC should be held at the ministerial level. This meeting marked the beginning of regular meetings of representatives of the parties. ASEAN was represented at the meeting by ministers, major industrialists and bankers, heads of state and semi-state companies. Representatives of big business, bankers, and officials of the UES administration participated in the meeting on the part of the UES [Letta, 2002, p.116-117]. The meeting in Brussels was notable for the first time that the five ASEAN member states presented a united front, demanding that the EEC abandon its protectionist policy [Zharov, 1982, pp. 127-133]. The then Minister of Foreign Affairs of Singapore, S. Rajaratnam made it clear at the press conference that ASEAN is committed to developing trade with the EEC in order to reduce its dependence on Japan.

An equally important event was the new ASEAN-EEC meeting held in Brussels on November 21, 1978. The significance of this meeting was that for the first time it was held at the level of foreign ministers. ASEAN ministers and their European counterparts exchanged views on pressing regional and international issues. They reiterated their call for the maintenance of peace, international cooperation and mutual understanding, the development of the world economy and social equality [Joint Declaration..., 1978, p. 2,]. The Foreign Ministers of the EEC countries spoke positively about the development of ASEAN as a regional organization. They expressed their perception of ASEAN as a factor of stability and balance necessary for maintaining peace in Southeast Asia. The representatives of both sides stressed the importance they attach to fulfilling their obligations and developing bilateral relations, and confirmed their common desire to expand cooperation. The view was expressed that this cooperation should work for the benefit of the population, promoting social justice and ensuring human rights. The EEC expressed its desire to participate in ASEAN development programs, as well as in activities related to the development of regional cooperation. An agreement on cooperation was also reached at the upcoming international meeting in Manila in May 1979. The Ministers agreed on closer cooperation to create conditions for concluding trade agreements. In addition, important agreements for both sides were reached at the meeting.

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cooperation in the field of culture, exchange of experience and information (including scientific ones).

The Second Industrial Conference held under the auspices of the Commission of the European Communities (CES), held in 27-28 February 1979, was a significant step towards strengthening the dialogue. Jakarta was chosen as the venue for the conference, with 776 ASEAN and EEC representatives participating. The conference was also organized by four major Western European banking groups: ABECOR, EDIK, Yuroportperz and Inter-Alfa, which brought together 27 leading Western European banks. More than 300 business meetings were held during the conference. According to CES Vice President Haferkamp, the conference "featured the most authoritative CES delegation that has ever participated in such discussions" [Joint Press Release..., 1979, p. 1 - 4]. The focus was on eight industries (chemical, electrical, electronic, agricultural processing, machine tool and metalworking, woodworking, precision instrument making, communication and transport equipment manufacturing) and agricultural exports. The conference highlighted the need for close cooperation between the private sectors of both economic groups.

In August 1979, the EEC Secretariat in Brussels established a direct link with the ASEAN Secretariat. In the same year, a permanent representative office of the EEC was established in Bangkok. Inter-parliamentary contacts have been established since 1979. In 1979 in Strasbourg, and then in April 1981 in Jakarta, the delegations of the European Parliament and the Inter-Parliamentary Organization of ASEAN met. In Jakarta, it was decided to hold such meetings annually.

On March 8, 1980, the second meeting at the level of Foreign Ministers was held in Kuala Lumpur. After analyzing the international situation, the Ministers expressed their concerns about the emergence of new sources of threats to peace. They noted that the main sources of tension and instability are located in developing countries. Representatives of both regional groups expressed concern about the military actions of Vietnam in Cambodia and the USSR in Afghanistan. Such use of force was regarded by members of ASEAN and the EEC as an act of violence contrary to the norms of international law, and, consequently, as a threat to the peaceful coexistence of States and security [Joint Statement..., 1980, p. 1-6]. Within the framework of this meeting, an agreement was signed on cooperation between organizations in trade, technical and economic spheres. To facilitate this, a body was created - the Joint Cooperation Committee.

On November 28-29, 1980, the first session of the Committee was held in Manila, where the ASEAN countries were represented by the Ministers of Foreign Affairs, and the EEC was represented by the Vice-Chairman of the CES and the Director General for External Relations. In the area of trade cooperation, the Committee approved the ASEAN program. The Joint Committee considered the Association's request to improve the scheme of the Common System of Preferences of the EEC and reviewed the terms of trade for textiles and other goods produced in ASEAN countries. In the area of economic cooperation, the Committee adopted a joint action plan with the subsequent establishment of the ASEAN - EEC Business Council. Cooperation in this area was planned to be expanded by holding conferences with the participation of representatives of various industries. A program of cooperation in science, energy and technology was also approved.

On October 19-20, 1981, the 2nd session of the Joint Cooperation Committee was held in Brussels. The ASEAN Ministers met with the CES Chairman and his Deputy. As a result of the session, an agreement was signed on the establishment of the ASEAN-Brussels Committee, which included the ambassadors of the five ASEAN countries -

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Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and the Philippines, accredited in Brussels, and CES experts.

In 1982, a number of regular meetings of representatives of ASEAN and the EEC were held. In June 1982, the Foreign Ministers of the Association countries held talks with a Community delegation headed by the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the EEC, L. A. Abramovich. Tindamance. On March 25, 1983, a regular meeting of the ASEAN and EEC Foreign Ministers was held in Bangkok. The sides exchanged views, first of all, on issues related to the instability of the economic situation, threats to international security, and joint efforts to solve the tasks set for regional groupings. They once again expressed concern about the policy of Vietnam in Kampuchea (Cambodia) and the USSR in Afghanistan. The problem of refugees, a significant number of which have found shelter in the territory of ASEAN countries, has caused serious concern to the ASEAN people. The EEC Ministers gave a positive assessment of the efforts of the Association countries that provided large-scale humanitarian assistance to refugees. In turn, the ASEAN delegation expressed its gratitude to the European partners for their assistance in solving this problem, including through the implementation of UN humanitarian programs. The EEC-ASEAN Forum also addressed the issue of escalating tensions in the Middle East. The Ministers expressed satisfaction with the positive dynamics of cooperation between the two integration groupings. The Ministers spoke positively about the cooperation, which resulted in a significant increase in trade turnover [Joint Declaration..., 1983, p. 3, 4]. Agreements on trade in natural rubber, tin and coffee were signed at the meeting. The ministers agreed on the need to stabilize sugar prices. Agreements were signed on cooperation in the fields of science, technology, and insurance. At the end of the meeting, the Ministers expressed satisfaction with the activities of ASEAN and the EEC as levers for developing international cooperation and maintaining peace in their regions.

In February-March 1983, a conference dedicated to cooperation in the field of mechanical engineering was held in Kuala Lumpur. The conference was attended by more than 130 major representatives of European business. In December 1983, a meeting of representatives of the ASEAN and EEC Chambers of Commerce and Industry was held. It resulted in the establishment of the ASEAN-EEC Economic Committee, which is supposed to conduct more active cooperation in the field of investment placement and trade. The first steps in the Committee's work were to hold seminars on investment issues in Paris, London and Bonn from 26 March to 3 April 1984.

On October 15-16, 1984, the anniversary meeting of the ASEAN and EEC Foreign Ministers was held in Dublin, where the results of five years of cooperation were summed up. The participants of the meeting once again condemned the actions of the Soviet troops in Afghanistan, expressed extreme concern about the situation in Cambodia and the related refugee problem. A new area of cooperation has emerged - coordination of efforts to combat drug addiction and drug trafficking. At the meeting in Dublin, representatives of the Association reiterated their interest in further expanding ties with the EEC as a counterweight to the influence of Japan and the United States. Representatives of the Community highly appreciated the application of the common system of preferences and assured that in the second phase, in the period from 1986 to 1990, the interests of the ASEAN countries will be more significantly taken into account [Joint Declaration..., 1984, p. 1-4].

Since then, meetings and seminars organized by the EEC for business representatives, senior officials of various departments and ministries of ASEAN countries have been held on a regular basis. In 1982, in connection with the accession of Greece, Spain and Portugal to the EEC, a seminar for businessmen was organized in Athens

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from the ASEAN countries, where information was provided on the products and markets of the new member States of the Community.

In 1984, the ASEAN countries ' exports to the EAEU countries reached an impressive $ 9.5 billion. [Maletin, 1999, p. 83]. The share of manufacturing products in exports increased significantly, reaching over 46% of all goods sold in the EAEU countries by the mid-1980s.

In the face of growing contradictions between the United States, Japan and the EEC in the struggle for markets and sources of raw materials, the Community sought to strengthen its position in the Southeast Asian region. For the UES, this was a gateway to Asia. ASEAN considered the EAEU countries as a source of large investments and a promising partner in trade and economic cooperation, thanks to which the Association would be able to diversify its foreign economic relations and thus balance the dominant positions of the United States and Japan in this region. In addition, for ASEAN, cooperation with the EEC was the missing link in establishing three vectors of relations: ASEAN-Japan, ASEAN-USA, and ASEAN-EEC (later the EU).

list of literature

Zharov V. A. ASEAN: Politics and Economics, Moscow, 1982.

Maletin N. P. ASEAN: Three Decades of Foreign Policy (1967-1997). Moscow, 1999.

ASEAN-European Union Dialogue. S.a., s. 1.

Joint Communique of the Eighth ASEAN Ministerial Meeting. Kuala Lumpur, 13 - 15 May 1975.

Joint Declaration. The ASEAN-EC Ministerial Meeting. Brussels, 21 November 1978.

Joint Declaration. The Fourth ASEAN-EC Ministerial Meeting. Bangkok, 25 March 1983.

Joint Declaration. The Fifth ASEAN-EC Ministerial Meeting. Dublin, 15 - 16 October 1984.

Joint Press Release. The Second ASEAN-EC Conference on Industrial Cooperation. Jakarta, 26 - 28 February 1979.

Joint Statement Informal Meeting of the ASEAN Minister and Vice President and Commissioner of the EC - Commission. Jakarta, 24 - 25 September 1974.

Joint Statement on Political Issues The Foreign Ministers of ASEAN Member States and Member States of the European Community. Kuala Lumpur, 8 March 1980.

Letta G. M. ASEM's Future. Bologna, 2002.


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