ETHIOPIA: THE ETHNO-POLITICAL SITUATION IN THE STATE OF GAMBELLA
R.N. ISMAGILOVA Doctor of Historical Sciences Institute of Africa, Russian Academy of Sciences Keywords: Ethiopia, Gambella, ethnic federalism, interethnic relations, conflicts In accordance with the Constitution that came into force in August 1995, a new form of Government was introduced in Ethiopia - an ethnic federation. The Government that came to power after the overthrow of the anti-democratic regime of Mengistu Haile Mariam (Derg) in 1991 officially recognized the ethnic factor as the main principle or criterion for organizing public administration in multi-ethnic and multilingual Ethiopia. The basis of the created 9 states is based on the ethnic principle. Under the 1995 Constitution, all ethnic groups were granted equal rights, the opportunity to participate in government at all levels, use their own languages, and develop their own traditional culture. ETHNICITY IS FOR A LONG TIME Ethiopia is a country with a very complex ethnic composition. It has 85 nations. The most numerous (in%) are: Oromo-34.4, amhara-27, Somaliland-6.2, tigray-6.1, sidama-4.0, gurage - 2.5 1. The ethnic factor has always played a big role in Ethiopia. This was the case during the so-called imperial period (under Emperor Haile Selassie I), during the Derg period (1974-1991), and now. Ethnicity manifests itself in all spheres of life: in the functioning of government bodies, in the activities of parties (they are organized according to ethnic principle), in the structure of the army, in the socio-economic field, in the field of culture, etc. The ethnic factor continues to play a serious role in the political life of the country, leading to complications in interethnic relations and, as a consequence, to conflicts. Moreover, its role has increased in recent years. This is due to a number of reasons: unresolved economic problems and increasing social and ethnic tensions, increasing importance of traditional ethno-cultural values, growing ethnic identity, and a heightened emotional attit ... Read more
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Hanoi, Vietnam
03.03.2024 (48 days ago)
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